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Oxford, MS, United States

Momm H.G.,Middle Tennessee State University | Wells R.R.,National Sedimentation Laboratory | Bingner R.L.,National Sedimentation Laboratory
Natural Hazards | Year: 2015

Field observations of ephemeral gully evolution in active croplands have often revealed the presence of a less erodible soil layer that is typically associated with tillage practices (i.e., plowpan). This more erosion-resistant layer limits channel incision forcing the gully channel to expand laterally through basal scour of the bank toe and gravitational mass movement of the gully channel sidewalls. Understanding the role and quantification of widening processes is vital to efforts to quantify soil loss from gullies. One major research challenge is designing laboratory experiments that replicate field conditions while accounting for and accurately measuring spatial and temporal gully channel characteristics. Technology was developed to capture 2-cm-spaced cross-sections along a soil flume at user-defined time intervals. Two off-the-shelf high-resolution cameras were positioned above the soil bed looking as close to nadir field of view as possible. Using open source technology, computer control of the cameras was used to trigger each camera at 10-s intervals and download individual images from the cameras. Out of the two sets of images generated (one set from each camera), only one set of images was selected for further processing based on the quality of image information defined by image clarity/sharpness and the presence/absence of light reflectance in the water. Batch processing scripts were used to geo-reference individual images within an image set based on known coordinates of control points and to re-sample each image into a standard raster grid cell size of 0.25 cm. Custom developed image processing software was utilized to identify image color discontinuities representing channel edges based on water and soil image color reflectance differences. After an additional filtering step, the set of image color discontinuities was converted into GIS polygons, and these polygons were then used to produce a set of cross-sections for each time interval (hundreds of cross-sections for each time interval). The technology offers an inexpensive alternative for collecting data from laboratory experiments and serves as a template for multi-purpose investigations where channel edge discontinuities need to be accurately measured at high temporal resolution. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source

Wu W.,University of Mississippi | Altinakar M.S.,University of Mississippi | Song C.R.,University of Ottawa | Al-Riffai M.,Building and Infrastructure Testing Laboratory Ltd | And 39 more authors.
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering | Year: 2011

Embankment breaching processes are very complex and involve mixed-regime free-surface flow with overfalls and hydraulic jumps, pressurized pipe flow, strong vertical and lateral erosion, discrete mass failure, and headcut migration. The failure mode and mechanism are affected by upstream and downstream water conditions, embankment configurations, and soil properties and state. Great progress has been made to investigate embankment breaching processes through laboratory and field experiments and real-world case studies. However, most laboratory experiments were for smallscale homogeneous embankments, only a few outdoor experiments were conducted at large scales (up to several meters in height) and/or were of composite construction, and only limited data sets for historical embankment failures were sufficiently documented. A number of parametric, simplified physically-based, and detailed multidimensional physically-based embankment breach models have been established in the past decades, but prediction with these models involves significant uncertainties. The biggest limitation of the existing breach models is quantifying erosion rates or erodibility of cohesive soils and sediment entrainment under embankment break/breaching flows. It is important to conduct more large-scale laboratory experiments and field case studies to improve existing embankment breach models or develop new ones. These models should also be enhanced by incorporating better physical insights, by using more efficient computational technologies, and integrating them into more robust flood forecasting and risk assessment systems with comprehensive relevant databases © ASCE. Source

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