The National Science Foundation is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. Its medical counterpart is the National Institutes of Health. With an annual budget of about US$7.0 billion , the NSF funds approximately 20% of all federally supported basic research conducted by the United States' colleges and universities. In some fields, such as mathematics, computer science, economics and the social science, the NSF is the major source of federal backing.The NSF's director, deputy director, and the 24 members of the National Science Board are appointed by the President of the United States, and confirmed by the United States Senate. The director and deputy director are responsible for administration, planning, budgeting and day-to-day operations of the foundation, while the NSB meets six times a year to establish its overall policies. The current NSF director, confirmed in March 2014, is France A. Córdova, former president of Purdue University. Wikipedia.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: INCO.2013-1.4 | Award Amount: 3.28M | Year: 2013
The project aims to support the advancement of the bi-regional STI policy dialogue between the EU MS/AC and the Eastern Partnership countries, with an explicit focus on the Societal Challenges that have been identified to be of mutual interest for the two regions, namely Climate Change, Energy and Health. In particular the project will identify actions and stakeholders and will implement innovative pilot activities to strengthen the coordination and impact of the individual actions. In terms of policy dialogue, the project will provide analytical evidence and monitoring to feed the dialogue and to support joint agenda setting. Policy mix reviews will be implemented along with capacity building activities with emphasis on the promotion of Innovation. More specifically, links with the EU technology platforms will be established allowing mutual learning and exchange of best practices for enhanced public-private partnerships between the two regions. In addition, support to FP contacts will be provided to strengthen their role and to adapt their functioning to the challenges of H2020. The proposed project will build on the experience of the previous projects (IncoNet EECA and IncoNet CA/SC) targeting the region and will develop synergies with the forthcoming project targeting the Central Asian countries.
Werbos P.J.,National Science Foundation
IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine | Year: 2011
This paper reviews the evolution of four generations of concepts of the "smart grid," the role of computational intelligence in meeting their needs, and key examples of relevant research and tools. The first generation focused on traditional concepts like building more wires, automated meters, workforce development, and reducing blackouts, but it already had many uses for computational intelligence. The second generation, promulgated by Massoud Amin at EPRI, entailed greater use of global control systems and stability concepts, and coincided with new issues of market design and time of day pricing. New third generation and fourth generation concepts aim for a truly intelligent power grid, addressing new requirements for a sustainable global energy system, making full use of new methods for optimization across time, pluggable electric vehicles, renewable energy, storage, distributed intelligence and new neural networks for handling complexity and stochastic challenges. Important opportunities for society and new fundamental research challenges exist throughout. © 2011 IEEE.
Lane J.,National Science Foundation |
Bertuzzi S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Science | Year: 2011
Science agencies and research institutions are building the infrastructure to evaluate results of federal funding of scientific research.
Roco M.C.,National Science Foundation
Journal of Nanoparticle Research | Year: 2011
A global scientific and societal endeavor was set in motion by the nanotechnology vision formulated in 1999 that inspired the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) and other national and international R&D programs. Establishing foundational knowledge at the nanoscale has been the main focus of the nanotechnology research community in the first decade. As of 2009, this new knowledge underpinned about a quarter of a trillion dollars worldwide market, of which about $91 billion was in US products that incorporate nanoscale components. Nanotechnology is already evolving toward becoming a general-purpose technology by 2020, encompassing four generations of products with increasing structural and dynamic complexity: (1) passive nanostructures, (2) active nanostructures, (3) nanosystems, and (4) molecular nanosystems. By 2020, the increasing integration of nanoscale science and engineering knowledge and of nanosystems promises mass applications of nanotechnology in industry, medicine, and computing, and in better comprehension and conservation of nature. Nanotechnology's rapid development worldwide is a testimony to the transformative power of identifying a concept or trend and laying out a vision at the synergistic confluence of diverse scientific research areas. This chapter provides a brief perspective on the development of the NNI since 2000 in the international context, the main outcomes of the R&D programs after 10 years, the governance aspects specific to this emerging field, lessons learned, and most importantly, how the nanotechnology community should prepare for the future. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.
Haq B.U.,National Science Foundation |
Haq B.U.,University Pierre and Marie Curie
Global and Planetary Change | Year: 2014
Eustatic sea-level changes of the Cretaceous are reevaluated based on a synthesis of global stratigraphic data. A new terminology for local/regional or relative sea-level changes (eurybatic shifts) is proposed to distinguish them from global (eustatic) sea-level changes, with the observation that all measures of sea-level change in any given location are eurybatic, even when they include a strong global signal. Solid-earth factors that influence inherited regional topography and thus modify physical measures of amplitude of the sea-level rises and falls locally are reviewed. One of these factors, dynamic topography (surface expression of mass flow in the upper mantle on land- and seascapes), is considered most pertinent in altering local measures of amplitude of sea-level events on third-order time scales (0.5-3.0. Myr). Insights gained from these models have led to the reconciliation of variance between amplitude estimates of eurybatic shifts in any given region and global measures of eustatic changes. Global estimates of third-order events can only be guesstimated at best by averaging the eurybatic data from widely distributed time-synchronous events. Revised curves for both long-term and short-term sea-level variations are presented for the Cretaceous Period. The curve representing the long-term envelope shows that average sea levels throughout the Cretaceous remained higher than the present day mean sea level (75-250. m above PDMSL). Sea level reached a trough in mid Valanginian (~. 75. m above PDMSL), followed by two high points, the first in early Barremian (~. 160-170. m above PDMSL) and the second, the highest peak of the Cretaceous, in earliest Turonian (~. 240-250. m above PDMSL). The curve also displays two ~. 20. Myr-long periods of relatively high and stable sea levels (Aptian through early Albian and Coniacian through Campanian). The short-term curve identifies 58 third-order eustatic events in the Cretaceous, most have been documented in several basins, while a smaller number are included provisionally as eustatic, awaiting confirmation. The amplitude of sea-level falls varies from a minimum of ~. 20. m to a maximum of just over 100. m and the duration varies between 0.5 and 3. Myr. The causes for these relatively rapid, and at times large amplitude, sea-level falls in the Cretaceous remain unresolved, although based mainly on oxygen-isotopic data, the presence of transient ice cover on Antarctica as the driver remains in vogue as an explanation. This idea has, however, suffered a recent setback following the discovery of pristine foraminiferal tests in the Turonian of Tanzania whose oxygen-isotopic values show little variation, implying absence of glacioeustasy at least in the Turonian. The prevalence of 4th-order (~. 400. Kyr) cyclicity through most of the Cretaceous (and elsewhere in the Paleozoic, Jurassic and Cenozoic) implies that the periodicity on this time scale, presumably driven by long-term orbital eccentricity, may be a fundamental feature of depositional sequences throughout the Phanerozoic. © 2013.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INT-02-2014 | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2015
BLACK SEA HORIZON has been designed to sustainably enhance bi-regional STI cooperation between the EU and the Black Sea region. The result of the projects STI dialogue support will be an improved knowledge base about EUs external environment and of the current framework for STI cooperation as well as an increased awareness to contribute to the elimination of remaining obstacles and to further intensify the bi-regional STI cooperation based on a jointly developed EU-Black Sea STI Cooperation Programme. To facilitate the pooling of resources the project will establish a group of committed funding parties, endowed with a functional call infrastructure and a clear set of rules and regulations, ready to implement a joint call for proposals. The participation of Black Sea researchers in HORIZON 2020 will be operationally facilitated through (i) identified common research topics taken-up in future calls for proposals, (ii) provision of up-to-date relevant information and good practices to participate in HORIZON 2020 to a large group of researchers, (iii) an increased number of joint research proposals through direct face-to-face meetings of, (iv) a young generation of social scientists trained in HORIZON 2020 and ready to promote and back up future RTI cooperation and (v) an increased readiness of programme owners both from the EU and Black Sea countries to engage jointly in JPIs and future COFUND ERA-NETs. Furthermore, the project will increase understanding of cluster policies and cluster management, establish direct business contacts between cluster managers from the EU and target countries and raise awareness on the programming of as well as on the advantages of inclusive, sustainable and social innovation. The projects results will be broadly disseminated to increase awareness on bi-region STI cooperation activities and opportunities and will be exploited towards an enhanced introduction of the Black Sea region to the ERA.
Amirkabir University of Technology and National Science Foundation | Date: 2015-05-26
The embodiments herein provide a self-excited contact less Hybrid Electromagnetic Braking (HEB) system provided with a both Permanent Magnetic (PM) type ECB and electrically excited windings type ECB. The HEB system has an Eddy Current Brake (ECB) and a Regenerative Brake (RB) with two outer rotors and a common internal stator. The rotor assembly of the RB is coupled to the same shaft on which the ECB rotor is mounted. The RB collects an input mechanical power from the shaft to supply electrical power to ECB windings through a power electronic interface module. A controller measures the system conditions to send a control signal to the power electronic interface module to control a power flow from RB to ECB. The ECB and RB develops two braking torques on the shaft to initiate a braking action in the vehicle.
National Science Foundation | Date: 2014-09-05
The invention relates to hardware decoders that efficiently expand a small number of input bits to a large number of output bits, while providing considerable flexibility in selecting the output instances. One main area of application of the invention is in pin-limited environments, such as field programmable gates array (FPGA) used with dynamic reconfiguration. The invention includes a mapping unit that is a circuit, possibly in combination with a reconfigurable memory device. The circuit has as input a z-bit source word having a value at each bit position and it outputs an n-bit output word, where n>z, where the value of each bit position of the n-bit output word is based upon the value of a pre-selected hardwired one of the bit positions in the x-bit word, where the said pre-selected hardwired bit positions is selected by a selector address. The invention may include a second reconfigurable memory device that outputs the z-bit source word, based upon an x-bit source address input to the second memory device, where x
National Science Foundation and Samsung | Date: 2014-05-19
A method of manufacturing an organic semiconductor thin film includes coating an organic semiconductor solution on a substrate, and shearing the organic semiconductor solution in a direction that results in a shearing stress being applied to the organic semiconductor solution to form the organic semiconductor thin film, wherein a speed of the shearing is controlled such that an intermolecular distance of the organic semiconductor solution is adjusted.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INT-02-2015 | Award Amount: 1.57M | Year: 2016
The project STI International Cooperation Network for EaP Countries Plus (EaP PLUS) aims to stimulate cooperation between researchers from the EaP countries and EU MS and enhance the active participation of the Eastern Partnership countries in Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. Building on the results of the predecessor FP7 project IncoNet EaP, the project will eliminate remaining obstacles to EU-EaP STI cooperation through a number of innovative and targeted actions: (a) strategic priority setting through supporting EU-EaP policy dialogue and through maximizing the impact of the association to Horizon 2020; (b) stronger interaction between researchers & participation in H2020, i.e. Info days, cooperation with scientific diaspora, and grants for networking; (c) promotion of the research-innovation interface supporting communities of excellence, i.e. co-patenting analyses, clustering schemes, promotion of the technology platforms concept to EaP countries; (d) optimal framework conditions and increasing coordination in policies and programmes through training seminars for STI policymakers, increased coordination and synergies between policies and programmes of EU/MS and EaP, i.e. JPIs, COST, national programmes; (e) communication and outreach through innovative actions