The National Science and Technology Development Agency is an agency of the government of Thailand which supports research in science and technology and their application in the Thai economy.From the agency's website:The National Science and Technology Development Agency reflects the Thai government’s deep commitment to apply scientific and technological capabilities to promote and sustain the nation’s economic, social development and growth through the promotion of linkage and collaboration between the public and private sectors. Since its inception in 1991, NSTDA has grown into an active organization with a diverse program focusing on cutting-edge S&T research, design, development and engineering. NSTDA offers a full potential and opportunity for cooperative challenges and investment. Through such a convergence, the organization brings a layered, multi-faceted approach to the scholarly and most practical description of scientific and technological discoveries and advancement to serve national needs and maintain a sustained linkage with the international community. Wikipedia.
Kaewkamnerd S.,National Science and Technology Development Agency
BMC bioinformatics | Year: 2012
Current malaria diagnosis relies primarily on microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. This method requires vigorously trained technicians to efficiently detect and classify the malaria parasite species such as Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) for an appropriate drug administration. However, accurate classification of parasite species is difficult to achieve because of inherent technical limitations and human inconsistency. To improve performance of malaria parasite classification, many researchers have proposed automated malaria detection devices using digital image analysis. These image processing tools, however, focus on detection of parasites on thin blood films, which may not detect the existence of parasites due to the parasite scarcity on the thin blood film. The problem is aggravated with low parasitemia condition. Automated detection and classification of parasites on thick blood films, which contain more numbers of parasite per detection area, would address the previous limitation. The prototype of an automatic malaria parasite identification system is equipped with mountable motorized units for controlling the movements of objective lens and microscope stage. This unit was tested for its precision to move objective lens (vertical movement, z-axis) and microscope stage (in x- and y-horizontal movements). The average precision of x-, y- and z-axes movements were 71.481 ± 7.266 μm, 40.009 ± 0.000 μm, and 7.540 ± 0.889 nm, respectively. Classification of parasites on 60 Giemsa-stained thick blood films (40 blood films containing infected red blood cells and 20 control blood films of normal red blood cells) was tested using the image analysis module. By comparing our results with the ones verified by trained malaria microscopists, the prototype detected parasite-positive and parasite-negative blood films at the rate of 95% and 68.5% accuracy, respectively. For classification performance, the thick blood films with Pv parasite was correctly classified with the success rate of 75% while the accuracy of Pf classification was 90%. This work presents an automatic device for both detection and classification of malaria parasite species on thick blood film. The system is based on digital image analysis and featured with motorized stage units, designed to easily be mounted on most conventional light microscopes used in the endemic areas. The constructed motorized module could control the movements of objective lens and microscope stage at high precision for effective acquisition of quality images for analysis. The analysis program could accurately classify parasite species, into Pf or Pv, based on distribution of chromatin size. Source
Sajomsang W.,National Science and Technology Development Agency
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2010
Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide with non-toxic, biodegradable, and biocompatible properties. Subsequently, there has been much interest in chitosan and it has been widely used in many fields. However, its applications have only been shown in acidic medium because of its poor solubility in neutral and basic pH. To enhance the solubility, the physicochemical and biological properties and application, chemical modifications of chitosan were made. Quaternization is a popular means of modifying chitosan resulting in a water-soluble chitosan derivative with a wide pH range including neutral and basic conditions. This is due to a permanent positive charge on the polymer backbone. The N-arylation of chitosan, particularly the aromatic containing nitrogen atom, has gained increasing attention because it not only has a hydrophobic character, but it is also a hydrophilic and nucleophilic characters at nitrogen atom. Therefore, the focus was on the recent synthetic methods and applications of N-pyridylmethyl chitosan and its quaternized derivatives in this review. Moreover, the quaternization of chitosan and its derivatives with different synthetic routes and quaternizing agents were reviewed. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source
Flegel T.W.,Mahidol University |
Flegel T.W.,National Science and Technology Development Agency
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2012
It is estimated that approximately 60% of disease losses in shrimp aquaculture have been caused by viral pathogens and 20% by bacterial pathogens. By comparison, losses to fungi and parasites have been relatively small. For bacterial pathogens, . Vibrio species are the most important while for viral pathogens importance has changed since 2003 when domesticated and genetically selected stocks of the American whiteleg shrimp . Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Boone 1931) replaced the formerly dominant giant tiger or black tiger shrimp . Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon (Fabricius 1798) as the dominant cultivated species. For both species, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal. Next most important for . P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), originally reported from Brazil, but since 2006 from Indonesia where it was probably introduced by careless importation of shrimp aquaculture stocks. So far, IMNV has not been reported from other countries in Asia. Former impacts of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) on this species have dramatically declined due to the introduction of tolerant stocks and to implementation of good biosecurity practices. Another problem recently reported for . P. vannamei in Asia is abdominal segment deformity disease (ASDD), possibly caused by a previously unknown retrovirus-like agent. Next most important after WSSV and YHV for . P. monodon is monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) for which component causes appear to be Laem Singh virus (LSNV) and a cryptic integrase containing element (ICE). Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV) may be problematic when captured . P. monodon are used to produce larvae, but only in the absence of proper preventative measures. Since 2009 increasing losses with . P. vannamei in China, Vietnam and now Thailand are associated with acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS) of presently unknown cause. Despite these problems, total production of cultivated penaeid shrimp from Asia will probably continue to rise as transient disease problems are solved and use of post larvae originating from domesticated SPF shrimp stocks in more biosecure settings expands. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source
National Science and Technology Development Agency | Date: 2014-11-06
A microfluidic device allowing for multiple discrete reactions sites and allowing for sequential reactions and sample analysis along with methods for device fabrication and use is provided. The microfluidic device provides a micro-total analysis system on a single substrate and has multiple reaction sites allowing for cascade reactions and analysis on a single chip using micro-quantities of sample and reagents. The microfluidic device provides discrete sites for immobilization of cognitive agents including enzymes, binding proteins, nucleic acids and the like as well as methods for quantitative analysis. The invention also provides methods for the fabrication of the device.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: NMP.2012.2.2-6 | Award Amount: 5.15M | Year: 2013
The project brings together a consortium of EU and ASEAN researchers with the aim of developing a solar powered photocatalytic waste-water treatment system capable of mineralising the recalcitrant organic matter that is not removed by current biological methods. With an emphasis on generating novel materials and new understandings of photocatalytic materials and processes, the interdisciplinary team aims to develop cost effective prototype photocatalytic reactors capable of deployment in remote areas and of treating contaminated water from small scale industrial producers at rates of up to 500 m3 of a day.