National School of Marine Science and Coastal Planning
Algiers, Algeria
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Forchino A.A.,University of Turin | Lourguioui H.,National School of Marine Science and Coastal Planning | Lourguioui H.,University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene | Brigolin D.,University of Turin | Pastres R.,University of Turin
Aquacultural Engineering | Year: 2017

Aquaponics is generally regarded as a sustainable practice, but its environmental burdens were not yet deeply investigated. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used to assess the environmental impacts of two hypothetical coupled aquaponics systems (CAPS): Raft System (RAFT) and Media-Filled Beds System (MFBS). Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were considered as cultivated species in both systems. The Simapro© software V.8.0 was used for calculation. The comparison between the two virtual systems indicated the floating technique as the less impacting one. Even though energy consumption appears to be higher in the floating system, LCA results were markedly influenced by the extensive use of inert materials in MFSB. In both systems, contribution analyses underlined that the main environmental impacts are related to infrastructures, electricity and fish feed. The LCA analyses carried out in this study highlights that the choice of less impacting materials, and the optimization of management practices, should be taken as priorities in order to reduce environmental impacts of this activity. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Located in the center of Algeria's littoral, the coastal wetland of Reghaia faced strong ecological and socio-econo mic challenges for decades. Algiers metropolis urban growth and additional pressures from the regional industrial development and the domestic tourism threaten this fragile aquatic ecosystem and its great biodiversity value, though recognized in international treatises for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands, such as the RAMSAR convention. A coastal management planning based on an ICZM approach and focused on the protection and conservation of the wetland was initiated. It allowed the development of an integrative and inclusive process, which turned out to be an interesting and valuable experience, but highlighting some problems in starting an integrated management program, however necessary for the conservation of this natural and cultural heritage. The first outcomes are presented and exploited, a performance assessment methodology is proposed.

Haoui-Meslem N.,National School of Marine Science and Coastal Planning | Haoui-Meslem N.,University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene | Rebzani-Zahaf C.,University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene
Cahiers de Biologie Marine | Year: 2017

Sustainable oyster production of Crassostrea gigas in Algeria requires information about growing, condition and reproduction. The paper documents growth, condition index (CI), and describes the reproductive cycle of oysters cultivated in open sea using plastic bags suspended from long lines. The study was performed on juveniles (May 2011-February 2012), and adults (October 2012-October 2013). Gametogenesis was described through the histological study of the gonad and oocyte cohort analysis. The growth of C. gigas juveniles was described using the Schnute growth model. CI of juveniles was low during the cultivation period. Length and weight of adult oysters ranged from 93.9 to 109.1 mm and 64.1 to 132.3 g respectively. CI was satisfactory (> 50). The reproductive cycle of C. gigas began in December with several oocytes cohorts. Oocytes were growing during January-February and ripening occurred in March-May. The main spawning took place in June when temperature was increasing, and spawning of less intensity was observed during July-October. Spring phytoplankton blooms seem to provide energy for gonad development. These results may serve as baseline data for the development of aquaculture programs in Algeria. © 2017, Station Biologique de Roscoff. All rights reserved.

Alouache S.,University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene | Alouache S.,National School of Marine Science and Coastal Planning | Kada M.,National School of Marine Science and Coastal Planning | Messai Y.,University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene | And 3 more authors.
Microbes and Environments | Year: 2011

The aim of the study was to evaluate bacterial antibiotic resistance in seawater from four beaches in Algiers. The most significant resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin and ticarcillin, whereas they were relatively low for ceftazidime, cefotaxime and imipenem. According to sampling sites, the highest resistance rates were recorded for 2 sites subjected to chemical and microbiological inputs (amoxicillin, 43% and 52%; ticarcillin, 19.6% and 47.7%), and for 2 sites relatively preserved from anthropogenic influence, resistance rates were lowest (amoxicillin, 1.5% and 16%; ticarcillin, 0.8% and 2.6%). Thirty-four bacteria resistant to imipenem (n=14) or cefotaxime (n=20) were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=15), Pseudomonas fluorescens (7), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (4), Burkholderia cepacia (2), Bordetella sp. (1), Pantoea sp. (1), Acinetobacter baumannii (1), Chryseomonas luteola (1), Ochrobactrum anthropi (1) and Escherichia coli (1). Screening for extended spectrum β-lactamase showed the presence of CTX-M-15 β-lactamase in the E. coli isolate, and the encoding gene was transferable in association with the IncI1 plasmid of about 50 kbp. Insertion sequence ISEcp1B was located upstream of the CTX-M-15 gene. This work showed a significant level of resistance to antibiotics, mainly among environmental saprophytic bacteria. Transmissible CTX-M-15 was detected in E. coli; this may mean that contamination of the environment by resistant bacteria may cause the spread of resistance genes.

Benkacem T.,Blida University | Hamdi B.,National School of Marine Science and Coastal Planning | Hamdi B.,University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene | Chamayou A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 2 more authors.
Powder Technology | Year: 2016

Natural diatomite from Sig/Algeria was treated with 0.5, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 M nitric acid solutions for 2 h under reflux at 333 K in order to improve its performance as support of catalyst. The purified silica powders obtained from frustules can also be used to reinforce composites. The solids obtained were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermal analyses, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77 K. Treatment of diatomite earth with nitric acid reduced mineral impurities, such as Fe2O3 and alkali metal oxides (CaO, MgO), eliminated carbonates and increased SiO2 ratio from 88% to 98%. The SEM micrographs showed the original geometry of the pores to be preserved. The surface properties were also evaluated using inverse gas chromatography at infinite dilution (IGC-ID) and finite concentration (IGC-FC). The interest here was to establish whether the technique is sufficiently sensitive to detect variations in the surface properties of the diatomite due to this chemical treatment. The IGC analysis permitted to reach several surface energy components with organic probes. Between them, the distribution function of the adsorption energy sites obtained with the isopropanol probe revealed a silica structure after the 5 M nitric acid treatment. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Dauvin J.C.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Alizier S.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Rolet C.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Bakalem A.,Montpellier SupAgro | And 5 more authors.
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2012

The interest in benthic indicators for soft-bottom marine communities has dramatically increased after a rather long period of relative stagnation due to the need for new tools to assess the status of marine waters, called for by the Clean Water Act and the Water Framework Directive. Our expertise on benthic communities has permitted us to gather a vast amount of data from diverse water bodies under unpolluted and polluted conditions (e.g.; accidental oil spill, sewage, long-term anthropogenic estuarine constraints) in tidal estuaries, harbours, and on the coastal shelf from Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. We compared the results of four biotic indices on the various available datasets: Shannon-Wiener H′ diversity, AMBI and BO2A, which divide the species into Ecological Groups, and ITI, which divides the species into trophic groups, and the agreement of Best Professional Judgement (BPJ) on the assessment of ecological conditions. Benthic indicators as "sentinel species", which is a particular species that by its presence or its relative abundance warns of possible unbalances in the surrounding environment or distortions in community functions, was also tested. Indicators, BPJ and opportunist sentinel species gave similar ECoQS for the different sampling sites. We discuss the use of Biological Indicators as 'objective' or 'subjective' alternatives for assessing soft-bottom communities, and propose to employ simple methods such as BPJ and taxonomy sufficiency in such diagnostic approaches. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Dauvin J.-C.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | Dauvin J.-C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Grimes S.,National School of Marine Science and Coastal Planning | Bakalem A.,Montpellier SupAgro
Journal of Natural History | Year: 2013

The Mediterranean Sea is known as a biodiversity hot spot, with 16,848 species reported. Biodiversity is higher in coastal areas and decreases with depth. However, knowledge about the southwestern sector remains scarce. For the last three decades, sampling of soft-bottom communities along the 1180 km of the shallow Algerian coast (0-136 m) has recorded 1642 macrobenthic species. There is a decreasing west-east species-richness gradient, especially for the total species richness and the amphipods. In addition, quantitative sampling in Bou Ismail Bay in summer 1988 (98 sampling sites for a total of 841 species) shows that diversity indices (i.e. species richness, >100 species for 0.2 m-2; Shannon diversity, >6.0; and ES50, >34) are among the highest for similar sand and muddy-fine sand communities in the Mediterranean Sea and the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Bou Ismail Bay appears to have the highest species richness among Algerian bays, probably because of its variety of benthic habitats and the absence of significant pollution in this area. Monitoring must be undertaken to survey this high biodiversity, and a national strategy should be proposed to preserve high diversity zones. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Grimes S.,National School of Marine Science and Coastal Planning | Ruellet T.,CNRS Laboratory of Oceanology and Geosciences | Dauvin J.-C.,CNRS Laboratory of Oceanology and Geosciences | Boutiba Z.,Oran University of Science and Technology - Mohamed Boudiaf
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2010

Between 1995 and 2001, the soft-bottom communities along the 1180. km of the Algerian coast were sampled in nine gulfs and 12 harbours, providing a total of 655 samples. Eight macrozoobenthos-based biotic indices (S, N, H′, BQI, AMBI, BENTIX, BO2A and ITI) were selected to describe the general patterns of the coastal water quality status and to establish a quality diagnosis for the different zones subjected to anthropogenic pressure (e.g., harbour construction, industrial and urban pollution). Reference values were determined for each of the eight indices selected by analyzing the indices' parameter distribution. The Ecological Quality Ratio (EQR) was estimated for each index, resulting in an EQR Mean Score and an EQR Bad Score. From these EQR, we defined an EQS for each sample. The agreement between these EQS was analysed using the Kappa method in order to propose a survey strategy for the Algerian coastal waters that would take into account the soft-bottom biological compartment. The results clearly indicate that high and good quality assessments are prevalent in the gulfs, while quality assessments in harbours vary greatly from bad to good. The effect of pollution observed in the harbours can be classified in two main groups, according to when they were constructed and their relative degree of openness to the sea, which permits better water circulation and probably dilutes the pollution. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Boumaza S.,National School of Marine Science and Coastal Planning | Boudefoua N.,National School of Marine Science and Coastal Planning | Boumaza R.,Agrocampus Ouest | Semroud R.,National School of Marine Science and Coastal Planning
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology | Year: 2014

In the Mediterranean, the discharge of urban effluents in coastal areas adversely affects Posidonia oceanica, since it induces nutrient enrichment and a decrease of water clarity, but data from the southern Mediterranean are very sparse. In this paper we examine the differences in P. oceanica parameters from a disturbed site (Bou Ismaïl) and a reference site (Kouali), at meadow level (shoot density, meadow cover), at individual level (leaf biometry, A coefficient, epiphytic index) and at biochemical level (total phenols). The differences were examined at the upper limit (- 5. m) and the lower limit (- 20 m), during an annual cycle. Results indicated a significantly lower mean meadow cover at the upper limits of the disturbed site compared to the reference site. The leaf length and leaf area were also lower at the disturbed site, and this difference was recorded all year round at the upper limit. The epiphytic index and the A coefficient of adult leaves were higher only in July and October at the upper limits of the disturbed site. In contrast, total phenol concentration of the leaves did not show any response to disturbances related to urban effluents. However, the biosynthesis of phenolic substances at the two sites was significantly higher in the intermediate leaves, in winter, when growth slows down. The unexpected higher value of total phenol concentration recorded in the intermediate leaves and sheaths in spring at the reference site is discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Amriche A.A.E.,Montpellier SupAgro | Guerfi M.,National School of Marine Science and Coastal Planning
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

Soil moisture (SM) is of fundamental importance to many agricultural, hydrological and climate studies. In this paper, a simple approach for mapping near-surface SM from Envisat ASAR data was developed. Four high-resolution images covering a semiarid region in Algeria were acquired with the same sensor configuration. We performed the pretreatment using the Basic Envisat SAR Toolbox of the European Space Agency. Then, we extracted the backscattering coefficient σ0 (dB) from the filtered and calibrated images. On the other hand, five training sites with different soil physical properties and vegetation cover were selected for monitoring SM. The field campaigns were conducted concurrent to satellite image acquisitions to measure soil water content in the top five centimeters using the gravimetric method. The study of linear regressions associated to the change detection approach allowed the expression of the backscattering coefficient as a function of volumetric soil moisture (σ0 = a*θ + b). The coefficients "a" and "b" of the equation slightly differ from one site to another and also from one season to the next. This difference is mainly due to the effects of surface roughness and vegetation biomass variations. Our study confirms a good agreement between the volumetric nearsurface SM and the radar backscattering coefficient for all the test fields. The comparison between measured and estimated SM proves the accuracy of the inversion models used here with a mean average error of less than 5%. At the end, high resolution maps of soil moisture distribution were obtained from the acquired radar images. © 2012 SPIE.

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