National School of Architecture

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Weill J.-M.,National School of Architecture
WCTE 2016 - World Conference on Timber Engineering | Year: 2016

In the context of fitting out an holiday village at Marne-la-Vallée in Seine-et-Marne (France), "Les Villages Nature du Val d'Europe" entrusted the construction of the aquatic complex to the architect Jacques Ferrier. In Parallel we got the structural engineering design of the infrastructure and the superstructure of the buildings. it comprises three separate entities: the water pavilion including swimming pools (110×80 m with a maximum height of 27 metres), the air pavilion including including a tower with a height of 17 meters "Pavillon de l'Air" and the outdoor lagoon comprising pools creating a total bathing area of 2500 m2. This document covers the analysis of the wood-steel accessible roof structure of the air pavilion and particularly the presentation of the assumptions adopted for the roof design. As a general view the uniqueness of this so-called large span structure is not to be a form-finding analysis with the very typical idea to find the best ratio between the volume of material and the span. At the contrary the shape of the surface is simply a consequence of its accessibility as a "promenade". This situation has led to a very unusual level of complexity regarding the engineering design also maximize by the use of a non-isotropic material such as wood.


Weill J.-M.,National School of Architecture
WCTE 2016 - World Conference on Timber Engineering | Year: 2016

Up to the Second World War, the materials selected and building methods used for traditional constructions were de facto, based on descriptive specifications representing standard solutions. Since the Second World War, the wide range of products and techniques available has led to the description of a standard solution being replaced by a liability to perform applicable to the building. In other words, do the technologies used for a project open up new possibilities in terms of the general organisational structures used for production purposes, generating hybrid systems by default? That is the initial statement of the Halle Pajol project designed in Paris by the Architects Françoise Hélène Jourda and her associate Raphaelle Laure Perraudin. This project is a remarkable example in which designing architectural technical solutions are: - a process, leading to a new model (knowledge, innovation) - the combination of two systems or two forces (distribution of new technics and adaptation to local context), led by the customer, legislation, the design team and constructors.


Cassen S.,University of Nantes | Lescop L.,National School of Architecture | Grimaud V.,University of Nantes | Robin G.,University of Cambridge
Journal of Archaeological Science | Year: 2014

The Neolithic tomb of Gavrinis is famous for its rich and complex engraved art that has inspired a large number of interpretative studies. However, all of these are based on unsatisfactory drawings. This article describes the methodological results of a new project for recording the Gavrinis engravings that combines 3D laser and 2D photographic techniques. Laser scanning not only provides accurate contextual information such as the stone relief and architectural setting in which the art is found. Specially designed processing of point clouds also makes it possible to highlight the contours of the pecked motifs and to record them directly from the 3D model of the decorated stones. This can be further improved by photography using oblique lighting and image processing techniques in order to obtain more detailed recordings of the motifs as well as insights into their chronological relationships. In the unusual case of barely visible engravings made with very slight peckmarks, experimental application of the DStretch colour detection programme has been unexpectedly successful. A comparison of all these results shows that laser and photographic techniques have different strengths and weaknesses that complement each other. Thus, combined use of these techniques within a single methodological process produces innovative and comprehensive documentation of Neolithic tomb art. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Eliopoulou E.,National School of Architecture | Mantziou E.,National School of Architecture
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2017

The refinement of architectural space plays a catalytic role in the building's energy balance. A different configuration on the deep energy building retrofit is presented on this paper, by proposing mainly strategies that hierarchize in a high position the invigoration of the building's architectural design principals. These space qualities enable diversity of occupancy, environmental variability and facilitate the building envelope to operate efficiently as climate moderator. The main working hypothesis claims that bioclimatic trends, derived from primary architectural decisions of the early design phase, predispose the final energy performance of the existing building.Based on that, the alternative retrofit proposal called Architectural Energy Retrofit (AER) strategy, focuses on the energy genetic code of these basic architectural features. It argues that their holistic revival and refinement, indoors and outdoors will pave the way for the building's energy retrofit and the space's regeneration. As a case study to test this theory, an old and energy-consuming school complex is selected. By applying solely architectural interventions, a reduction of 44% energy demands was achieved. The results highlighted the challenges of “quantifying” the energy efficiency of architecture. However, by exploring and focusing on the non-energy, co-benefits, it also seeks to expand the perspective of energy efficiency beyond the traditional measures, by identifying and measuring its impacts across many different spheres. AER, as a counterproposal, wishes to add a new base of discussion on deep energy retrofit strategies as it follows a diametrically opposed direction than the typical practices. The building instead of being “sealed”and its environment kept strictly controlled, it “opens” and interacts with its surroundings. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EeB-03-2014 | Award Amount: 5.99M | Year: 2015

Built2Spec brings together a new and breakthrough set of technological advances for self-inspection and quality assurance that will be put into the hands of construction stakeholders to help meeting EU energy efficiency targets, new build standards, and related policy ambitions. B2S will expand upon a cloud based construction support platform, conceived following the most advanced integrated design and delivery framework for the building sector and hosting applications that facilitate worksite activities and quality compliance by putting knowledge in hands of contractors, in the form of shared design specifications and 3D models, installation guidelines, information on regulatory frameworks, and help from construction experts on smartphones and tablets. New self-inspection technologies managed within the platform and developed in the project include: Special IR camera in smartphones coupled with new mathematical reverse models for on-the-fly analysis of existing buildings envelope thermal properties Rapid BIM modelling via instant 3D capture with smartphones, passed via the cloud to the refurbishment team back-office, allowing accurate instant energy efficiency evaluation, quality check and streamlined quotation process Portable, innovative low pressure air tightness technique allowing testing of occupied buildings Smart sensor-embedded construction elements (identification, structural performance, and building environment parameters) Portable single device for Indoor Air Quality tests offering multi-gas capabilities targeting the most harmful gas pollutants A novel lightweight portable sound source for on-site acoustic tests to regulation compliance The B2S system will be integrated into the operations of SME contractors, large construction firms, and end user clients directly within the consortium and work program activities, assuring systematic and scientific performance measures, feedback and powerful exploitation and dissemination strategies.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2009.3.2.1.1 | Award Amount: 3.52M | Year: 2010

The project tackles the problem of earthquake-impact on Cultural Heritage assets starting from basic consideration that efficient protection, with substantial guarantee of compatibility and low-intrusivity, can only be achieved with minimum intervention approach. This requires that potentialities of existing materials and components are as much as possible exploited in terms of strength and energy dissipation, and candidate interventions are validated and optimized on specific, real application conditions. At the project start, earthquake-induced failure mechanisms, construction types and materials, intervention and assessment techniques will be cross-correlated with the aim of developing new integrated methodologies with a systemic approach. Traditional materials will be enhanced by innovative industrial processes (e.g., nano-limes or micro-silica for injection), and new high-performance (e.g. dissipative) elements will be developed. Novel collaborative combinations of them will be tested on structural components (walls, pillars, floors, vaults) and on structural connections (wall-, floor- and roof-to-wall), which converge the behaviour of single strengthened elements into the global structural response. The envisaged techniques will be also validated on model buildings and substructures. Advanced numerical studies will allow parameterizing the results and deriving simple and optimized design procedures. Early warning techniques for intelligent interventions and advanced monitoring techniques for knowledge based assessment and progressive implementation of interventions will be also developed. This bottom-up approach will bring to new integrated materials, technologies and tools for systemic improvement of seismic behaviour of CH assets. The new solutions will be condensed into guidelines for end-users. The large participation of research centres, SME, and end-user from various countries, including ICPC and MPC, ensures increased impact of the research.


Villadiego K.,Institute for Urbanism and Regional Planning IUAR | Velay-Dabat M.A.,National School of Architecture
Building and Environment | Year: 2014

We carried out a thermal comfort survey in a hot and humid climate in Barranquilla, Colombia. Measures of climatic conditions and parallel thermal sensation questionnaires were used in order to increase knowledge about thermal sensation in tropical climates. We used the ASHRAE sensorial scale of seven symmetrical points to evaluate sensation; we also asked about agreement preference. The survey was focused on pedestrians in five different zones of Barranquilla established through the Local Climate Zone System. Results show a high tolerance to high temperature and relative humidity. The mean thermal sensation votes for the whole sample was 0=neutral; people felt satisfied but they preferred cooler temperatures. Thus, expectation and memory are other factors that influence perception. Also, the survey reveals that climate conditions are not enough to explain thermal sensation. Overall, air temperature, solar radiation and wind speed are the most influential parameters on thermal sensation. The results of the study contribute to knowledge about thermal comfort in tropical climates and encourage planners to include climate considerations into urban planning in order to improve the quality of thermal ambiance. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Groleau D.,National School of Architecture | Mestayer P.G.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Boundary-Layer Meteorology | Year: 2013

This heuristic study of the urban morphology influence on urban albedo is based on some 3,500 simulations with the Solene model. The studied configurations include square blocks in regular and staggered rows, rectangular blocks with different street widths, cross-shaped blocks, infinite street canyons and several actual districts in Marseilles, Toulouse and Nantes, France. The scanned variables are plan density, facade density, building height, layout orientation, latitude, date and time of the day. The sky-view factors of the ground and canopy surfaces are also considered. This study demonstrates the significance of the facade density, in addition to the built plan density, as the explanatory geometrical factor to characterize the urban morphology, rather than building height. On the basis of these albedo calculations the puzzling results of Kondo et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 100:225-242, 2001) for the influence of building height are explained, and the plan density influence is quantitatively assessed. It is shown that the albedo relationship with plan and facade densities obtained with the regular square plot configuration may be considered as a reference for all other configurations, with the exception of the infinite street canyon that shows systematic differences for the lower plan densities. The curves representing this empirical relationship may be used as a sort of abacus for all other geometries while an approximate simple mathematical model is proposed, as well as relationships between the albedo and sky-view factors. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Bouyer J.,National School of Architecture | Inard C.,University of La Rochelle | Musy M.,National School of Architecture
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2011

To streamline the design of the energy efficient buildings, appropriate tools are needed to assess their energy performance taking into account the microclimatic context. Numerical simulation seems to be the most suitable issue, but none tool is dedicate to the direct evaluation of the microclimate influence on the building energy consumption. A complete solution could be to use both CFD and thermoradiative simulation tools complementary with the coupling technique perspective. This paper presents both a developed CFD-thermoradiative coupled simulation tool and a typical application on an urban fragment. The results lead to two kind of observations:Integration of the thermal model of a building in the microclimatic simulation platform enable a quantitative evaluation of the building energy demand regarding different urban design scenarii (e.g. mineralized vs vegetated).Different physical phenomena do not contribute as much in the energy balance and it is important to compute precisely each one to obtain the small scale microclimatic influence. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Marsault X.,National School of Architecture
Proceedings of BS 2013: 13th Conference of the International Building Performance Simulation Association | Year: 2013

As simulation researchers in the field of performance-driven architecture, we mainly describe in this paper an interactive genetic algorithm (IGA) especially developed for eco-performance and real-time creative design simulations, associated with a simple and intuitive human machine interface. It has been originally created during the french ANR project EcCoGen dealing with creativity assistance, with the objective of "reducing the gap" between architectural design and current scientific knowledge needed to optimize the building form in early design stage, reduce its energy consumption and bring a real help to the architect's decisions. Copyright © 2011 by IPAC'11/EPS-AG.

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