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Sieffert Y.,Joseph Fourier University | Huygen J.M.,National School of Architecture | Daudon D.,Joseph Fourier University
Journal of Cleaner Production

In order to respond to the expected scarcity of fossil fuels, sustainability is incorporated into the curriculum of civil engineering and architecture students with a particular emphasis on: new technologies, new materials and energy efficiency in buildings. Today, the challenge of tomorrow is enhanced by the fore coming scarcity of raw materials. In addition, sustainable construction of new buildings has to be thought without provision of new raw materials. One promising solution for future building construction, considering the limited material resources, is to repurpose materials that have already been manufactured. This relies on a shift of mentality towards reusing/recycling of materials instead of discarding them. This paper presents a pedagogical activity focusing on the use of repurposed materials. The paper describes the rationale behind the re-use of materials and details how the gap between civil engineering and architecture perspectives has been bridged in order to the "design-build" practical workshop. The results of this sustainability exercise are presented through the description of two major constructions erected from a mount of waste in Marseille (France). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Garcia Sanchez D.,Ecole des Mines de Nantes | Lacarriere B.,Ecole des Mines de Nantes | Musy M.,National School of Architecture | Bourges B.,Ecole des Mines de Nantes
Energy and Buildings

Sensitivity analysis plays an important role in the understanding of complex models. It helps to identify the influence of input parameters in relation to the outputs. It can also be a tool to understand the behavior of the model and can then facilitate its development stage. This study aims to analyze and illustrate the potential usefulness of combining first and second-order sensitivity analysis, applied to a building energy model (ESP-r). Through the example of an apartment building, a sensitivity analysis is performed using the method of elementary effects (also known as the Morris method), including an analysis of the interactions between the input parameters (second-order analysis). The usefulness of higher-order analysis is highlighted to support the results of the first-order analysis better. Several aspects are tackled to implement the multi-order sensitivity analysis efficiently: interval size of the variables, the management of non-linearity and the usefulness of various outputs. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Levy-Vroelant C.,Paris 8 University | Levy-Vroelant C.,National School of Architecture
Housing Studies

Social housing in France now occupies a central position in political discourse and in public opinion. Accommodating some 17% of households and being an economic driver, its political weight is understandable. But the frailty of the current consensus, based on new production as a solution for solving the "housing crisis," can be approached by analyzing the ruptures which have occurred since the "glorious times"-in terms of both narratives and actions. Using the image of a "new deal" between markets, state, and society and the concept of "general interest" as a framework, the paper first discusses the way the post-liberal shift impacts and challenges housing policies and the place of social housing. The historically constructed narrative of the sector is then presented from its origins up to the shift of the 1970s. Finally, it is argued that the turmoil of the last four decades indicates a shift toward a new repartition between the main stakeholders and a different role for the State-that leaves unsolved not only the housing question, but also the social one. © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source

Marsault X.,National School of Architecture
Proceedings of BS 2013: 13th Conference of the International Building Performance Simulation Association

As simulation researchers in the field of performance-driven architecture, we mainly describe in this paper an interactive genetic algorithm (IGA) especially developed for eco-performance and real-time creative design simulations, associated with a simple and intuitive human machine interface. It has been originally created during the french ANR project EcCoGen dealing with creativity assistance, with the objective of "reducing the gap" between architectural design and current scientific knowledge needed to optimize the building form in early design stage, reduce its energy consumption and bring a real help to the architect's decisions. Copyright © 2011 by IPAC'11/EPS-AG. Source

Groleau D.,National School of Architecture | Mestayer P.G.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Boundary-Layer Meteorology

This heuristic study of the urban morphology influence on urban albedo is based on some 3,500 simulations with the Solene model. The studied configurations include square blocks in regular and staggered rows, rectangular blocks with different street widths, cross-shaped blocks, infinite street canyons and several actual districts in Marseilles, Toulouse and Nantes, France. The scanned variables are plan density, facade density, building height, layout orientation, latitude, date and time of the day. The sky-view factors of the ground and canopy surfaces are also considered. This study demonstrates the significance of the facade density, in addition to the built plan density, as the explanatory geometrical factor to characterize the urban morphology, rather than building height. On the basis of these albedo calculations the puzzling results of Kondo et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 100:225-242, 2001) for the influence of building height are explained, and the plan density influence is quantitatively assessed. It is shown that the albedo relationship with plan and facade densities obtained with the regular square plot configuration may be considered as a reference for all other configurations, with the exception of the infinite street canyon that shows systematic differences for the lower plan densities. The curves representing this empirical relationship may be used as a sort of abacus for all other geometries while an approximate simple mathematical model is proposed, as well as relationships between the albedo and sky-view factors. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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