National School of Agricultural Engineering, Bordeaux

www.agro-bordeaux.fr
Gradignan, France
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Falcao L.D.,CNRS Oenologie Research Unit | Falcao L.D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lytra G.,CNRS Oenologie Research Unit | Lytra G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 6 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The aroma profile of Bordeaux red wines is known to be marked by blackberry and blackcurrant flavours; this study focused on the fresh blackberry aroma in Bordeaux red wines, using sensory gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and two-dimensional gas chromatography analysis (GC-GC-MS). A previous HPLC fractionation of red wine extracts on a C18 column produced four fractions with blackberry aromas that were then analysed by GC-O, GC-GC-MS and GC-MS. From these fractions, 10 esters, corresponding to red- or black-berry fruit descriptors, were characterised by GC-MS. Ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate (ethyl leucate, EL) was identified for the first time in red and white table wines as a compound directly associated with a "fresh blackberry" aroma. Its perception thresholds were 900 and 300 μg/l, respectively, in dearomatized red wine and model wine solution (alcohol 12%, pH 3.5), and the average concentration in the various wines was ∼400 μg/l. Sensory omission tests highlighted the importance of this compound and identified a perceptive interaction with ethyl butanoate. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Bruwer J.,University of Adelaide | Li E.,University of Adelaide | Lang S.,University of Adelaide | Chaumont S.,National School of Agricultural Engineering, Bordeaux
Journal of Foodservice Business Research | Year: 2012

This exploratory study examines the relative importance of wine's region of origin in the consumer wine-buying decision-making process in a restaurant setting of the market. The research seeks to evaluate whether its relative importance varies and under what conditions, including taking into account consumers' quality perception of wine's region of origin, anticipated consumption situation, consumption behavior and a number of demographic variables. Data are collected through the use of a self-administered, highly-structured questionnaire in a restaurant in Gawler, South Australia. The sample consists of the restaurant clientele who had both consumed and purchased wine in the previous 12 months resulting in 70 useable surveys. Region of origin has a relatively high importance in the consumer wine-buying decision-making process although wine type and grape variety are the most important choice factors in the wine selection process. Region of origin varies in importance as a choice factor within consumption situations and pre-conditions. The higher the price of wine under consideration, the greater the level of importance placed upon region or origin. There is a positive correlation between consumers' wine quality perception of a wine region and the degree of importance placed on region of origin when selecting wine. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


PubMed | National School of Agricultural Engineering, Bordeaux and CNRS Oenologie Research Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2015

The aroma profile of Bordeaux red wines is known to be marked by blackberry and blackcurrant flavours; this study focused on the fresh blackberry aroma in Bordeaux red wines, using sensory gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and two-dimensional gas chromatography analysis (GC-GC-MS). A previous HPLC fractionation of red wine extracts on a C18 column produced four fractions with blackberry aromas that were then analysed by GC-O, GC-GC-MS and GC-MS. From these fractions, 10 esters, corresponding to red- or black-berry fruit descriptors, were characterised by GC-MS. Ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate (ethyl leucate, EL) was identified for the first time in red and white table wines as a compound directly associated with a fresh blackberry aroma. Its perception thresholds were 900 and 300g/l, respectively, in dearomatized red wine and model wine solution (alcohol 12%, pH 3.5), and the average concentration in the various wines was 400g/l. Sensory omission tests highlighted the importance of this compound and identified a perceptive interaction with ethyl butanoate.


Pineau B.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Barbe J.-C.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Barbe J.-C.,National School of Agricultural Engineering, Bordeaux | Van Leeuwen C.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | And 2 more authors.
Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin | Year: 2011

Aim: The aim of this study was to elucidate how an initially neutral Merlot must resulted in a wine with characteristic aromas of red- and black-berry fruit, focusing on the respective contributions of yeast metabolism together with grape juice, pulp, and skins. Methods and Results: Sensory analyses were performed on Merlot grape skin maceration models, based on observations in the winery. Initial findings revealed that strong fruity nuances appeared during pre-fermentation maceration. In the maceration models used, the development of aroma of red- and black-berry fruit systematically paralleled the growth of the yeast population. The respective roles of grape skins and yeasts were investigated throughout the alcoholic fermentation of model musts with addition of Merlot skins or Merlot skin extract in ethanol. The aromatic nuances revealed by alcoholic fermentation in a must alone had no specific white-, rosé-, or red-wine character. In contrast, wines made by microvinification with grape skins and/or grape skin extract in ethanol had a clear, intense aroma of red- and black-berry. Microvinification with both Merlot skin extract and grape skins revealed the most intense fruity character. Conclusions: Inodorous skin constituents produced a specific aroma of red- and black-berry fruit after alcoholic fermentation by yeast. The physical presence of grape skins during fermentation enhanced the intensity of the fruity nuances obtained. Significance and impact of the study: The study established, for the first time, the existence of inodorous constituents in Merlot grape skins, extractible by ethanol and transformed by yeasts to produce a specific aroma of red- and black-berry fruit in the finished wines. © Vigne et Vin Publications Internationales (Bordeaux, France).


Pineau B.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Barbe J.-C.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Barbe J.-C.,National School of Agricultural Engineering, Bordeaux | Leeuwen C.V.,University of Bordeaux 1 | And 2 more authors.
Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin | Year: 2010

Aims: The first aim of this investigation was to determine whether red-and black-berry fruit aromas were specific to red wines. The second aim was to study their contribution to the red Bordeaux wine concept Methods and results: In experiment 1, red wines were presented to expert assessors in dark, then in clear glasses. Assessors selectedwines where they detected specific red-/black-berry aromas and then rated the perceived intensity. Results showed a statistically significant impact of visual input on both detection and intensity rating of red-/black-berry aromas in red wines. As part of experiment 2, both red and white wines were rated using dark glasses only. Globally, red-/black-berry aromas were shown to be more specific to red wines. Finally, in experiment 3, red Bordeaux wine experts assessed the degree to which 21 wines (9 red Bordeaux wines, 8 red wines of various origins and 4 white wines) corresponded to their own red Bordeaux wine concept, and then evaluated the intensity of 4 fruity descriptors they had detected in these wines. The results revealed that the expert assessors shared coherent olfactory concepts of red Bordeaux wines, which enabled them to distinguish the red Bordeaux from the odier wines presented. Conclusions: The existence of a red-/black-berry character specific to red wines was demonstrated. Moreover, it was shown for the first time that red Bordeaux wines tend to have their own sensory space. The distinctive character of these wines was found to relate to «black-berry and» jammy-fruit olfactory descriptors. Significance and impact of the study: This study clarified our knowledge of the fruity olfactory descriptors specific to red wines in general and red Bordeaux wines in particular. © Vigne et Vin Publications Internationales (Bordeaux, France).


Saidane D.,CNRS Institute of Molecular Sciences | Barbe J.-C.,National School of Agricultural Engineering, Bordeaux | Birot M.,CNRS Institute of Molecular Sciences | Deleuze H.,CNRS Institute of Molecular Sciences
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2010

Kraft lignin from black liquor wastes have been converted into epichlorohydrin-crosslinked beads by inverse suspension polymerization. A careful control of the different parameters allowed the preparation of spherical beads with a relatively narrow diameter size distribution. The obtained beads, without permanent porosity, swell well in hydroalcoholic media. Grafting of the sulfonylhydrazine moiety using a two-step route was further performed to apply them to carbonyl compounds scavenging. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


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