National Salinity Research Center

Yazd, Iran

National Salinity Research Center

Yazd, Iran
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Assare M.H.,Iranian Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands | Banakar M.H.,National Salinity Research Center
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences | Year: 2011

Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh is one of the most important planted species in Iran, because of its fast growth and resistant to drought stress. Nonetheless, drought stress limited the suitable growth and decreases the pulp qualities and quantity. The aim of this study was to get information about the effects of drought stress on Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh behavior of morph-physiology characteristics. Changes in Leaf Area Index (LAI), Specific Leaf Area (SLA) and Water Use Efficiency (WUE) of three-years old trees under three soil moisture regimes (100, 70 and 40% of field capacity) under lysimeteric conditions were studied. The trials were carried out during the years of 2006-2008 in Shahid Saduqi Desert Research Station of Yazd, Iran. Results showed that a significant reduction of soil moisture effects on the reduction of biomass production and leaf area index. Water use efficiency and specific leaf area significantly increased with increasing stress; however, not significant difference was observed between treatments of 70 and 40% of field capacity. Severe drought (40% of field capacity) reduced water use efficiency in wood production without any significant differences to 100% of field capacity treatment. This implied that a moderate level of drought stress improved water use efficiency in this species of eucalyptus in an arid climate. Severe drought stress induced a reduction in water use efficiency. Therefore, it can be concluded that appropriate growth of this species and an economic production of wood depends thoroughly on soil moisture content. As a result, severe drought stress will impair many morphological and physiological behaviors. © 2011 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Kiani-Pouya A.,Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources | Kiani-Pouya A.,National Salinity Research Center
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2015

To examine the impact of long-term salinity on triticale, two salt-tolerant (ET-84-15 and ET-86-9) and two salt-sensitive (ET-85-17 and Jouvanilo) genotypes were grown in a sand culture containing Hoagland solution with 200 mM NaCl. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), photosynthetic parameters, and antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were analyzed at the late tillering (LT) and flowering (FL) stages. A substantial reduction was found in the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate of the triticale genotypes due to salt stress, with a more noticeable decline in the sensitive ones. Salt-treated plants indicated the presence of high amounts of H2O2 and LPO with a subsequent increase in the activities of the enzymes’ SOD, CAT, and GPOD in comparison with the control treatment. Conversely, APX activities remained unaltered or decreased slightly by salt stress. The salt-tolerant genotypes exhibited lower H2O2 and LPO, and displayed increased activities of the enzymes participating in the reactive oxygen scavenging system except for APX. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes under both the saline and non-saline conditions were found to be higher at the FL stage than at the LT one. This may explain partly the reason for why triticale is more tolerant at the FL stage. These results clearly demonstrate that the activation of SOD, CAT, and GPOD could contribute to the salt-stress tolerance in triticale. © 2015, Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.

Rahimian M.H.,National Salinity Research Center | Taghvaeian S.,Oklahoma State University | Nouri M.R.,Shahrekord University | Tabatabaei S.H.,Shahrekord University | And 3 more authors.
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2014: Water Without Borders - Proceedings of the 2014 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress | Year: 2014

Seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) of mature pistachio orchards in central Iran was estimated on a distributed basis by applying the SEBAL model to MODIS imagery. A downscaling approach was adopted to increase the spatial resolution of generated ET maps to a level that is useful for managing water resources in small-scale orchards of the region. SEBAL-ET for a sub-area of pistachio orchards was 1,275 mm in the 2012 growing season, significantly larger than the estimate obtained by applying a soil-water balance analysis (759 mm). The difference may be attributed to the fact that the soil-water balance analysis was conducted for the top 1.2 m of soil, while tap roots of pistachio trees can extract water from deeper layers. Assuming that SEBAL has provided accurate estimates, 82% of applied irrigation water was consumed through evapotranspiration process during the pistachio growing season. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Pirasteh-Anosheh H.,Shiraz University | Ranjbar G.,Shiraz University | Ranjbar G.,National Salinity Research Center | Emam Y.,Shiraz University | Ashraf M.,University of Sargodha
Turkish Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

The recovery ability of barley plants from salt stress conditions was assessed using foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) in a study conducted under controlled conditions. The barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Reyhan') were subjected to saline water with varying salinity levels (tap water 0.67 dS m-1 as control, 3, 6, 9, and 12 dS m-1) from 14 to 42 days after sowing (DAS). Then the plants were subjected to recovery treatments for 4 weeks, from 42 to 70 DAS. The recovery treatments included: non-recovery (R0), irrigation with tap water (R1), and irrigation with tap water + 2 foliar applications of SA with a 1-week interval (R2). The results showed that salt stress decreased shoot and root dry weight, leaf K+ concentration, and photosynthesis rate, while it increased leaf Na+ concentration and free proline, soluble protein, and chlorophyll contents. These reductions were related directly to stress intensity. Both recovery treatments increased shoot dry weight, Na+ concentration, free proline, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic rate. Compensation of root dry weight losses due to salt stress was observed only in R1. However, for other measured traits recovery ability with R2 was greater than with R1. Overall, it appeared that although recovery treatments could not fully eliminate salt-induced damages, the recovery treatment with SA proved to be very effective in alleviating the adverse effects of salt stress on barley plants. © TÜBİTAK.

Pakar N.,Shiraz University | Pirasteh-Anosheh H.,National Salinity Research Center | Emam Y.,Shiraz University | Pessarakli M.,University of Arizona
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: Application of plant growth regulator (PGR) may alleviate some negative effects of environmental stresses such as salinity. A controlled environment experiment was conducted to study barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Reyhane) growth, yield, antioxidant enzymes and ions accumulation affected by PGRs under salinity stress conditions at Shiraz University during 2012. The treatments were PGRs at four levels—water (as control), cycocel (CCC, 19 mM), salicylic acid (SA, 1 mM), and jasmonic acid (JA, 0.5 mM)—and four salinity levels—no stress (0.67 dS m−1, as control), 5, 10, and 15 dS m−1, which were arranged in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with four replicates. The results showed that salinity stress significantly decreased plant height, peduncle length, leaf area, ear length, grain number, dry weight, grain yield, harvest index, potassium (K+) accumulation, and potassium/sodium (K+/Na+) concentration ratio, which were closely associated with stress severity. However, PGRs compensated some of these negative effects, so that SA foliar application had the most ameliorative effect. Salt stress also increased Na+ accumulation as well as the activity of peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Since ion discrimination and enhanced antioxidant enzymes are associated with salt tolerance, in this experiment PGRs application might have enhanced K+ accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activity. The activity of SOD and K+/Na+ ratio were found to be useful in salt tolerance manipulation in barley plants. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Pirasteh-Anosheh H.,National Salinity Research Center | Emam Y.,Shiraz University | Rousta M.J.,Agricultural Research | Ashraf M.,Pakistan Science Foundation
Journal of Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2016

In this research, the effect of different SA concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mM) on biological and grain yield as well as Na+, K+, Cl−, Ca2+, and Mg2+ distribution and accumulation in barley plants was examined under nonsaline (2 dS m−1) and saline (12 dS m−1) conditions in a three-year field study (2012–2015 growing seasons). Storage factor (SF) was defined as the concentration of an ion in the root, as a proportion of total uptake of that ion, to quantify ion partitioning between root and shoot. Salt stress decreased SF for K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ and enhanced it for Na+ and Cl−, which led to reduce grain and biological yield. Nonetheless, foliar-applied SA in varying concentrations could lower some of these adverse effects on ion transport and accumulation. At the 2nd and 3rd years, unfavorable climatic conditions such as less precipitation and higher temperature intensified salt stress and decreased the alleviating impact of SA. Foliar application of SA at higher levels increased SF for Na+ and Cl− ions and decreased that for K+ indicating that SA helped barley plants keep more Na+ and Cl− and less K+ ions in the root system, which suggested the probable role of SA in altering ion transport within the plant in favor of salt stress tolerance. SF was found to be more correlated with grain yield under both nonsaline and saline conditions. Overall, SF might be considered as a potential criterion for salt tolerance in barley plants. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Karimizarchi M.,University Putra Malaysia | Karimizarchi M.,National Salinity Research Center | Aminuddin H.,University Putra Malaysia | Khanif M.Y.,University Putra Malaysia | Radziah O.,University Putra Malaysia
Malaysian Journal of Soil Science | Year: 2014

As plants grown in high pH soils usually suffer from nutrient deficiency, the present study was carried out to determine the influence of elemental sulphur as a soil acidulate on soil chemical properties and maize performance in a high pH soil of Malaysia. After 0, 20 and 40 days of soil incubation with different amounts of elemental sulphur (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 g S kg-1 of soil), maize plants were grown for 45 days under glasshouse conditions. Application of elemental sulphur at a rate of 0.5 g S kg-1 soil decreased soil pH value from the background level of 7.03 to 6.29 but significantly increased availability of Mn and Zn by 0.38% and 0.91%, respectively. This resulted in a 45.06% increase in total dry weight of maize. Further pH reduction due to the acidifying character of elemental sulphur at addition rates of 1 and 2 g kg-1 soil increased Mn and Zn availability, but significantly decreased maize performance. Overall, it can be concluded that when used in appropriate amounts, elemental sulphur can efficiently enhance soil fertility and maize performance by providing micronutrients for balanced fertilization. © 2014, Malaysian Society of Soil Science. All right reserved.

Rasouli F.,Fars Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources | Rasouli F.,National Salinity Research Center | Kiani-Pouya A.,Fars Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources | Kiani-Pouya A.,National Salinity Research Center
Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants | Year: 2015

The present study aims at clarifying the differences in photosynthesis parameters, oxidative status and antioxidant enzyme activity among ten triticale genotypes in response to salinity stress; and utilizing the traits as biomarkers for identification of salt-tolerant triticale genotypes. The plants were cultivated in a hydroponic system with or without 220mM salt concentration. The plants were analyzed for salt tolerance (in term of relative biomass) as well as for the traits at the vegetative (VG) and reproductive (RP) stages. Salinity resulted in significant decline in biomass (55-83%), net photosynthesis rate (12-65%), stomatal conductance (38-83%), transpiration rate (20-56%) and intercellular CO2 concentrations (7-37%) among genotypes. In contrast, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (LP) increased markedly in leaves of salt-stressed plants. Activities of total superoxide dismutase (TSOD), catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase due to salinity were 0.97-1.84, 0.88-1.96, 0.78-2.23 and 0.61-1.81 times over the control plant, respectively. The photosynthesis attributes, LP and TSOD at the VG stage and LP and CAT at the RP stage showed correlations with scores of salt tolerance (ST) indicating contribution of these traits to ST at least at some part of the plant growth stages, while no connection was found between ST with POD and CAT. Collectively, membrane integrity was a suitable indicator for discrimination of genotypes for ST, while photosynthetic capacity and enzymatic defense system cannot be utilized as general selection criteria for ST during screening of relatively large populations of triticale. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.

Salehi M.,National Salinity Research Center | Kafi M.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Kiani A.R.,Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Iran
Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2012

In order to study the effect of salinity and water stress on biomass production, growth parameters, seed yield and seed oil of kochia, kochia was grown in the spring and summer of 2009 with four levels of water supply and seven levels of saline water with three replications. During non-stress conditions kochia produced remarkable dry matter (37 t ha -1) and still produced up to 8 t ha -1 during severe drought and saline conditions. The effect of maximum crop growth rate was higher than maximum crop growth duration on biomass production. Green biomass of kochia increased compared to shoot biomass and then, more assimilate partitioning to the leaves under salinity and drought stress helped kochia to keep its photosynthesis organs otherwise improve the forage quality. Kochia produced 2.5 and 1.5 t ha -1 seed under nonsaline and saline conditions, respectively. Kochia seed contains reasonable oil content, particularly during extreme stress conditions. Kochia could produce 120 kg ha -1 oil during the excessive stress condition of this experiment. Kochia's seeds contain 84% unsaturated fatty acid. This result indicates that kochia is a potential forage and oil crop under saline and dry conditions in semi-arid areas. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Hasheminejhad Y.,National Salinity Research Center | Ghane F.,National Salinity Research Center | Mazloom N.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2013

Different types of equations have been proposed to predict the drainage water sodium adsorption ration (SAR; SARdw). These equations are verified here against the data of a lysimetric study. Cylindrical lysimeters with diameter of 40 and height of 180 cm were filled with a sandy loam soil and irrigated weekly with natural water. A set of 30 drainage water analyses was used for which measurements of irrigation and drainage water quality and quantities were done. Then a set of 116 water analyses throughout Iran was used to adjust some of available equations for local conditions. Simple correlations between irrigation water SAR and that of drainage water yielded to poor regression coefficient (R2 = 0.108), whereas steady-state assumption could fairly predict SARdw (R2 = 0.802), which is comparable with more complex methods recently proposed. The WatSuit model predicted values of the mean SARdw based on average leaching fraction (LF) that were very close to the measured mean of drainage water SAR. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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