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Eleazu C.O.,National Root Crops Research Institute
International Journal of Toxicological and Pharmacological Research | Year: 2012

The proximate composition, total carotenoid, reducing sugars and residual cyanide levels of flours of 6 elite yellow and white cassava varieties TMS01/1371, TMS01/1368, TMS01/1412, TMS05/0473, TMS05/1636 and TMS98/0505 were determined using standard techniques. Results indicate that all the cassava varieties had low moisture contents with TMS98/0505, TMS01/1368, TMS01/1412 and TMS05/1636 having significantly higher (P < 0.05) moisture contents than other varieties studied while that of TMS05/0473 and TMS01/1371 were significantly the least while the reverse was the case for the dry matter contents of the cassava varieties where they were observed to be very high. There was no observed significant difference (P > 0.05) in the crude fibre and ash contents of all the cassava varieties investigated and their ash contents were observed to be low in addition. TMS01/1412 was observed to have significantly higher quantities of fats (P < 0.05) among the cassava varieties studied while the fat contents of the other varieties were observed to be statistically the same (P > 0.05). The flours were observed to have very low residual cyanide which was higher with the yellow varieties compared with the white varieties. The yellow varieties were also observed to have higher quantities of reducing sugar and carotenoid compared with the white varieties. Results indicate that the yellow varieties may have dual utility both for human consumption and for industrial purpose while the white variety may be confined to domestic use. In addition, their low moisture and high dry matter contents suggest longer storage lives and better cooking qualities for the cassava varieties.

Ukpabi U.J.,National Root Crops Research Institute
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2010

Randomly selected tubers of lesser yam (Dioscorea esculenta) were converted to flour and used in bread making experimentations after blending it with wheat flour (at varying levels of lesser yam inclusion), with sole white wheat flour as a control. In addition to sensory and specific loaf volume evaluations of the experimental bread samples, the chemical (proximate), selected functional properties and paste characteristics of the experimental lesser yam and wheat flours were also determined. Results showed that on dry matter basis, the wheat flour had 11.50% protein and 1.74% fat while the corresponding values for the lesser yam flour were 7.19% protein and 1.10% fat. The maximum gelatinization temperature of the lesser yam flour paste (91.7°C) and wheat flour paste (94.8°C) were > 90°C ≤ 95°C with none of the experimental pastes having a maximum viscosity of > 700 Brabender Units. Bread produced with 20% lesser yam inclusion had 87% specific loaf volume of the control sample and was not significantly (P = 0.05) scored lower than the sole wheat bread in overall acceptability, taste, appearance and softness by the sensory assessors. Interestingly, all the bread samples made with the experimental lesser yam flour had no observable cracks on their respective crusts.

Eleazu C.O.,National Root Crops Research Institute | Iroaganachi M.,Abia State Polytechnic | Eleazu K.C.,Michael Okpara University of Agriculture
Journal of Diabetes Research | Year: 2013

Aim. To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) incorporated feeds on the renal and liver growths of diabetic rats, induced with 55 and 65 mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin. Method. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity (SPGR) in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The chemical composition and antioxidant screening of the test feeds were carried out using standard techniques. Results. Administration of the test feeds for 21 days to the diabetic rats of groups 4 and 5, resulted in 58.75% and 38.13% decreases in hyperglycemia and amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, SPGR, and relative kidney weights. The diabetic rats administered cocoyam incorporated feeds, had 2.71% and 19.52% increases in weight and growth rates, the diabetic rats administered unripe plantain incorporated feeds had 5.12% and 29.52% decreases in weight and growth rates while the diabetic control rats had 28.69%, 29.46%, 248.9% and 250.14% decreases in weights and growth rates. The cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher antioxidants, minerals and phytochemicals except alkaloids than unripe plantain feed. Conclusion. Cocoyam and unripe plantain could be useful in the management of diabetic nephropathy. © 2013 C. O. Eleazu et al.

Context To determine the effect of livingstone potato (Plectranthus esculentus N.E.Br) on hepatic Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods The G6PD activities in the liver homogenates of the rats and chemical analysis of the test feeds were determined using standard techniques. Results The diabetic control rats had significant alteration (P<0.05) of their hepatic G6PD activities compared with the non-diabetic rats. Intake of the test feed by the diabetic rats of group 3, resulted in significant (P<0.05) amelioration of their hepatic G6PD activities in comparison with the diabetic control rats. Chemical analysis of the test feed revealed that it contained considerable amounts of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, antioxidants and their cyanide contents were below the toxic level for humans. Conclusion The study shows ameliorative potentials of livingstone potato on the hepatic G6PD activity of diabetic rats which is attributed to its antioxidant/polyphenolic constituents.

Okereke C.O.,National Root Crops Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

A feeding trial lasting 42 days was conducted using seventy two (72) 4-weeks old Anak broiler chicks with an average initial live weight of 4.40 kg to determine the growth performance of finisher broilers fed diet containing Livingstone-potato tubers meal. The animals were assigned to four treatment based on their initial live weight. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (20% CP). The control diet was based on maize and soybean meal without Livingstone-potato tubers meal. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. The growth performance of broilers fed on various levels of meals in which Livingstone-potato (Rizga) meal substituted maize at 10%, 20% and 30% showed that there were no significant differences (p<0.05) in final body weight, average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio among the treatments. The implication of these result is that those parameters measured were not significantly (p>0.05) influenced by the dietary levels of Livingstone-potato (Plectranthus esculentus) meal. The results suggest that 30% replacement of maize with Livingstone-potato (Plectranthus esculentus) meal produced no negative effect on the production performance of finisher broilers. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2012.

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