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Hussain J.,National River Water Quality Laboratory | Sharma K.C.,University of Rajasthan
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2010

India is among the 23 nations around the globe where health problems occur due to excess ingestion of fluoride (>1.5 mg/l) by drinking water. In Rajasthan, 18 out of 32 districts are fluorotic and 11 million of the populations are at risk. An exploratory qualitative survey was conducted to describe perception of the community regarding fluoride and related health problems in Central Rajasthan. A study on distribution and health hazards by fluoride contaminate in groundwater was performed in 1,030 villages of Bhilwara district of Central Rajasthan. One thousand thirty water samples were collected and analyzed for fluoride concentration. Fluoride concentration in these villages varies from 0.2 to 13.0 mg/l. Seven hundred fifty-six (73.4%) villages have fluoride concentration above 1.0 mg/l. Sixty (5.83%) villages have fluoride concentration above 5.0 mg/l with maximum numbers (24, 19.5%) from Shahpura tehsil. A detailed fluorosis study was carried out in 41 villages out of 60 villages having fluoride above 5.0 mg/l in the study age, sex, and occupation data were also collected. Four thousand, two hundred fifty-two individuals above 5 years age were examined for the evidence of dental fluorosis, while 1998 individuals above 21 years were examined for the evidence of skeletal fluorosis. The overall prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was found to be 3,270/4,252 (76.9%) and 949/1,998 (47.5%), respectively. Maximum of 23.9% (1,016) individuals have mild grade of Dean's classification. Three hundred seventy-four (8.8%) individuals have severe type of dental fluorosis. The Dean's Community Fluorosis Index for the studied area in total is 1.62. Maximum CFI 3.0 was recorded from Surajpura of Banera Tehsil. Five hundred sixty-six (28.3%) individuals have Grade I type of skeletal fluorosis while only 0.6% (12) individuals have Grade III skeletal fluorosis. In conclusion, the prevalence and severity of fluorosis increased with increasing fluoride concentration. It was interesting to note that in some villages, the prevalence and severity of fluorosis were highest in subjects belonging to the economically poor community. Similarly, male laborers showed highest prevalence of fluorosis. Prevalence and severity of fluorosis were observed higher in subjects using tobacco, bettle nuts, and alcoholic drinks. In contrast, subjects using citrus fruits and having good nutritional status showed low prevalence. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Husain J.,National River Water Quality Laboratory | Arif M.,Banasthali University
Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2013

Wastewater and groundwater samples of Sanganer were studied to find out the pollution load of wastewater generated from dyeing and printing units and its impact on the quality of domestic wastewater of the Amanishah Nallah and groundwater. The wastewater of these units was found to have high concentrations of sodium, chloride, and sulfate. It has remarkable concentrations of copper, chromium, and iron with low chemical oxygen demand and nearly 7-fold biochemical oxygen demand. The wastewater of these units, discharged on land without any treatment, comes into the Amanishah Nallah through small watercourses. The quality of the domestic wastewater of Nallah deteriorates with the mixing of wastewater from these units. Maximum concentrations of physicochemical parameters were found at the Sanganer Road bridge sampling point. Eleven groundwater samples, collected from various locations of Sanganer, were found polluted due to percolation of wastewater into the ground. Copper and chromium were recorded from some groundwater sources while iron was recorded from almost all sources. Sodium and chloride are the major cation and anion in the groundwater, which is identical to the wastewater of dyeing and printing units. Source G5, near the small watercourse carrying the wastewater of these units, had maximum impact and maximum values of physicochemical parameters. © TÜBITAK. Source


Arif M.,Banasthali University | Hussain J.,National River Water Quality Laboratory | Sharma S.,Banasthali University | Kumar S.,Banasthali University
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

Fluoride concentration of groundwater samples from 100 villages of Nagaur tehsil was determined, 85 villages were found to have fluoride concentration more than 1.5 mg/L. The maximum fluoride concentration was recorded 6.6 mg/L in groundwater of Singhani village, while the minimum was recorded in Kurchhi village. As per the desirable and maximum permissible limit for fluoride in drinking water, determined by World Health Organization, the groundwater of about 85 villages of the studied sites is unfit for drinking purpose. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source


Arif M.,University of Rajasthan | Hussain J.,National River Water Quality Laboratory
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2012

Fluoride concentration in groundwater sources used as major drinking water source in rural area of block Nawa (Nagaur District), Rajasthan was examined and the toxic effects by intake of excess fluoride on rural habitants were studied. In block 13, habitations (30%) were found to have fluoride concentration more than 1.5 mg/l (viz. maximum desirable limit of Indian drinking water standards IS 10500, 1999). In five habitations (11%), fluoride concentration in groundwater is at toxic level (viz. above 3.0 mg/l). The maximum fluoride concentration in the block is 5.91 mg/l from Sirsi village. As per the desirable and maximum permissible limit for fluoride in drinking water, determined by World Health Organization or by Bureau of Indian Standards, the groundwater of about 13 habitations of the studied sites is unfit for drinking purposes. Due to the higher fluoride level in drinking water, several cases of dental and skeletal fluorosis have appeared at alarming rate in this region. There is an instant need to take ameliorative steps in this region to prevent the population from fluorosis. Groundwater sources of block Nawa can be used for drinking after an effective treatment in absence of other safe source. The evaluation of various defluoridation methods on the basis of social and economical structure of India reveals that the clay pot chip, activated alumina adsorption, and Nalgonda techniques are the most promising. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011. Source


Hussain J.,National River Water Quality Laboratory | Arif M.,Banasthali University
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2013

This study was carried out to assess fluoride (Fl) concentration in groundwater in some villages of central Rajasthan, India, where groundwater is the main source of drinking water. Water samples collected from deep aquifer-based hand pumps were analyzed for Fl content. Fluoride in groundwater of 121 habitations of Bhilwara tehsil of Bhilwara district of Rajasthan was determined to examine the potential Fl-induced toxicity in rural locations. Fluoride concentrations in the tehsil ranged from 0.5 to 5.8 mg/l. In the tehsil, 69 villages (57%) were found to have Fl concentration beyond the maximum desirable limit recommended in Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), 10500, 1991. Fifty-eight percent population of these villages was under the threat of fluorosis. One percent population of tehsil living in two villages ingested more than 5 mg/l Fl in each liter of drinking water and at maximal risk for dental and skeletal fluorosis. 142 individuals of these villages were examined for fluorosis. Data indicated that only four individuals (2.82%) did not exhibit dental fluorosis. Most individuals were found to suffer from mild (34.51% or 49 individuals) and moderate (31.69% or 45 individuals) fluorosis. Severe dental fluorosis was recorded in only 16 individuals (11.27%). In 104 individuals above 21 years of age examined for the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis, 66 were positive for skeletal fluorosis with a maximum 36.5% with grade I skeletal fluorosis. Grade II skeletal fluorosis was recorded in 28 individuals (26.9%). Data in this study demonstrate that there is a need to take ameliorative steps in this region to prevent fluorosis. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source

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