Dash A.K.,National Rice Research Institute |
Samal R.,National Rice Research Institute |
Gundimeda J.N.R.,National Rice Research Institute |
Subudhi H.N.,National Rice Research Institute |
Ravi N.R.,National Rice Research Institute
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2017
Hybrid rice development, a major advance in rice breeding, has demonstrated its immense potential in enhancing the rice productivity. In the three line system of hybrid rice, the restoration of fertility of the widely used wild-abortive type of cytoplasmic male sterility is controlled by Rf3 and Rf4, two fertility restoration genes. Exploration for restorers in diverse genetic backgrounds is a critical step in hybrid rice breeding. As genetic resources constitute the major source of new genes/alleles, an attempt was made to assess the distribution of these two restorer genes in the native populations collected from the geographic regions known to be the primary and secondary centres of origin of rice. In addition, assays were performed on the populations of Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara, the wild progenitors of rice. The results suggest that the Rf genes are well distributed in the wild forms at a higher frequency, more in O. rufipogon, while in cultivated forms, their frequency is low, particularly for the Rf3 gene. The genes and the alleles identified in the genetically divergent, low-performing land races and wild relatives can be successfully employed for the development of new hybrid rice cultivars. Copyright © NIAB 2017
Datta A.,Tata Energy Research Institute |
Datta A.,National Rice Research Institute |
Santra S.C.,Kalyani University |
Adhya T.K.,National Rice Research Institute |
Adhya T.K.,KIIT University
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2017
Mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG: Methane and nitrous oxide) emission from the rice cropland vis-à-vis increasing rice yield is one of the important challenges to the food security and climate change research. N-fertilizer input to the crop land is the key to rice productivity and GHG emission from soil. The sustainability of different types and application methods of N-fertilizers in rice cropland was studies based on the net annual C-equivalent GHG emission (CE) and total financial profit to the farmers’. The study was conducted in a low lying experimental rice field of eastern India during two consecutive years. The experiment was laid down with five replicates of the following treatments: (1) control (no N-fertilizer); (2) broadcasting ammonium sulphate (AS); (3) prilled urea (PU) and (4) deep placement of urea briquette (UB). Compared to other treatments, significantly higher GHG emission and grain yield (5–20% higher over other fertilizer applied plots) were recorded from the PU and UB applied plots respectively. Net CE was calculated using the GHG emission and secondary CE of different processes used in each treatment. The net CE followed the order: PU > UB > Control > AS. The ratio of total grain-C to net CE was significantly higher from the AS (15–51%) and UB (8–34%) plots compared to the PU applied plots. Net financial benefit ($ ha−1) to the farmers’ followed the order: UB > AS > Control > PU. Study indicates that UB may be a climatically sustainable mitigation option in the tropical rice paddy. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
Kuanar S.R.,National Rice Research Institute |
Ray A.,National Rice Research Institute |
Sethi S.K.,National Rice Research Institute |
Chattopadhyay K.,National Rice Research Institute |
Sarkar R.K.,National Rice Research Institute
Rice Science | Year: 2017
Stagnant flooding (SF) is an important constraint which prolonges partial submergence damages of rice plants and reduces grain yield. Due to the heterogeneity in flood-prone ecosystem, many different types of traditional rice varieties are being grown by the farmers. The local landraces adapted to extreme in water availability could be the sources of new gene(s) which would be utilized to improve the adaptability of rice to SF with high yield. The main goal of this study is to identify new genetic resources tolerant to SF based on morpho-physiological traits. A total of 16 rice varieties were selected after initial screening from more than 400 rice varieties which were collected from eastern states of India. The increase rate of plant height was higher under SF compared to control, whereas no such trend was observed in the increment rate of aboveground total dry weight and culm dry weight. Area of aerenchyma gas spaces per tiller increased whereas root oxidase activity decreased under SF. The reduction of root oxidase activity, leaf area, and leaf dry weight was higher in susceptible varieties under SF compared to control. Stability index for different grain yield and yield attributes revealed that the impact of SF differed among different varieties. Correlation coefficient studies among different parameters taking stability index showed significant association with the grain yield. Based on the findings, it was concluded that maintenance of equivalent panicle weight and panicle number, plant height and harvest index at the maturity stage, leaf area, leaf and culm dry weights, root oxidase activity and tiller numbers at the flowering stage under SF compared to control help the plant to counteract the adverse effects of SF. © 2017 China National Rice Research Institute
Anandan A.,National Rice Research Institute |
Anumalla M.,National Rice Research Institute |
Pradhan S.K.,National Rice Research Institute |
Ali J.,International Rice Research Institute
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016
Early seedling vigor (ESV) is the essential trait for direct seeded rice to dominate and smother the weed growth. In this regard, 629 rice genotypes were studied for their morphological and physiological responses in the field under direct seeded aerobic situation on 14th, 28th and 56th days after sowing (DAS). It was determined that the early observations taken on 14th and 28th DAS were reliable estimators to study ESV as compared to56th DAS. Further, 96 were selected from 629 genotypes by principal component (PCA) and discriminate function analyses. The selected genotypes were subjected to decipher the pattern of genetic diversity in terms of both phenotypic and genotypic by using ESV QTL linked simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. To assess the genetic structure, model and distance based approaches were used. Genotyping of 96 rice lines using 39 polymorphic SSRs produced a total of 128 alleles with the phenotypic information content (PIC) value of 0.24. The model based population structure approach grouped the accession into two distinct populations, whereas unrooted tree grouped the genotypes into three clusters. Both model based and structure based approach had clearly distinguished the early vigor genotypes from nonearly vigor genotypes. Association analysis revealed that 16 and 10 SSRs showed significant association with ESV traits by general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) approaches respectively. Marker alleles on chromosome 2 were associated with shoot dry weight on 28 DAS, vigor index on 14 and 28 DAS. Improvement in the rate of seedling growth will be useful for identifying rice genotypes acquiescent to direct seeded conditions through marker-assisted selection. © 2016 Anandan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Prabhukarthikeyan S.R.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University |
Prabhukarthikeyan S.R.,National Rice Research Institute |
Raguchander T.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2016
The production of one or more antibiotics is the mechanism most commonly associated with the ability of fluorescent pseudomonads to act as antagonistic agents against plant pathogenic fungi. Pseudomonas fluorescens strains were tested for antifungal activity against Pythium aphanidermatum that is known to attack turmeric crops. P. fluorescens produce antibiotics such as phenazine 1- carboxylic acid, 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyoluteorin and pyrrolnitrin. Production of antibiotic compounds were assayed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The antifungal compounds of DAPG, phenazine and pyoluteorin were identified on TLC at Rf value of 0.88, 0.57 and 0.05 respectively. All the antibiotics extracted from different strains of P. fluorescens were tested for their antifungal activity against P. aphanidermatum. Among the strains, the antibiotics extracted from strain FP7 effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of P. aphanidermatum in agar well diffusion assay.
Raghu S.,National Rice Research Institute |
Benagi V.I.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad |
Nargund V.B.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2016
Variability among 44 isolates of Fusarium spp. the Chilli wilt pathogen, collected from different locations of south India was studied in respect of Cultural and morphological and pathogenic variability. The colony diameter ranged from 60 mm to 90 mm after 8 days of inoculation incubated at 27±1°C. The colony colour varied from white, cream and violet with yellow coloured pigmentation on Potato dextrose agar. The growth on different solid media revealed that the best media was Potato dextrose agar (90 mm) with abundant sporulation followed by oat meal agar and V-8 juice agar. The colour of the colony also varied from white, cottony, cream and greyish in different media. As for the pathogenic variability is concerned the isolates showed variations in causing disease in different varieties of chilli and these isolates were clustered into three groups based the disease reaction.
Dash A.K.,National Rice Research Institute |
Rao R.N.,National Rice Research Institute |
Rao G.J.N.,National Rice Research Institute |
Verma R.L.,National Rice Research Institute |
And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016
The cytoplasmic male sterile line system comprising CRMS 32A and its maintainer line CRMS 32B is a popular choice for the development of new hybrids in India as CRMS 32A, having Kalinga 1 cytoplasm (other than WA), is a viable alternative to WA cytoplasm. However, both lines are susceptible to bacterial blight (BB), a major disease on rice. As enhancement of host plant resistance is the most effective and economical strategy to control this disease, four resistance genes (Xa4, xa5, xa13, and Xa21) were transferred from a BB pyramid line of IR64, into the A and B lines using a marker-assisted backcrossing (MAB) breeding strategy. During the transfer of genes into CRMS 32B, foreground selection was applied using markers associated with the genes, and plants having resistance alleles of the donor, are selected. Selection for morphological and quality traits was practiced to select plants similar to the recurrent parent. The four gene and three gene pyramid lines exhibited high levels of resistance against the BB pathogen when challenged with eight virulent isolates. Using genome wide based SSR markers for background selection, pyramids having >95% of the recurrent parent genome were identified. With CRMS 32B gene pyramid as donor, the four resistance genes were transferred into the A line through repeated backcrosses and the A line pyramids also exhibited high level of resistance against BB. Through a combination of selection at phenotypic and molecular levels, four BB resistance genes were successfully introduced into two parental lines (CRMS 32 B and A) of Rajalaxmi, an elite popular hybrid. The pyramided B lines did exhibit high levels of resistance against BB. Selection for morphological and quality traits and background selection hastened the recovery of the recurrent parent genome in the recombinants. Through repeated backcrosses, all the four resistance genes were transferred to CRMS 32A and test crosses suggest that the maintenance ability of the improved CRMS 32B lines is intact. These improved maintainer and CMS lines can directly be used in hybrid rice breeding and the new hybrids can play an important role in sustainable rice production in India. © 2016 Dash, Rao, Rao, Verma, Katara, Mukherjee, Singh and Bagchi.
Olfati J.-A.,Guilan University |
Mahdieh-Najafabadi M.-B.,Guilan University |
Rabiee M.,National Rice Research Institute
Comunicata Scientiae | Year: 2016
Garlic is primarily grown for its cloves used mostly as a food flavoring condiment. Previous studies carried out on plant density indicate its direct influence on yield. Plant density depends on the genotype, environmental factors, cultural practices, etc. This study was established to determine the effects of different between-row spacing on growth, yield, and quality of four local accession of garlic. It was laid out on two-factorial Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications during two years. Four local accession of garlic (Langroud, Tarom, Tabriz and Hamedan) were culture in three between-rows spacing (15, 25 and 35 cm) during two years. The results of two cultivated years were different. Plant density changed when garlic cultured with different between row spacing. In present research plant yield increased when the lower between row spacing and high plant density were used but the yield improvement occurring at increased plant stand is offset by the reduction in bulb size and some quality indices such as total phenol and antioxidant which severely affects quality and market value, when garlic is produced for fresh market.
Olfati J.A.,Guilan University |
Piree M.,Guilan University |
Rabiee M.,National Rice Research Institute |
Sheykhtaher Z.,Guilan University
International Journal of Vegetable Science | Year: 2014
If appropriate amounts of fertilizers are not applied during production, physiological symptoms of deficiency can occur in garlic (Allium sativum L.). Most producers use synthetic fertilizers because they are easy to transport, quickly available to plants, and produce high yields. However, nitrate levels in the soil should be kept to a level where leaching is not a problem. Split nitrogen (N) fertilizer applications can play a role in a nutrient management strategy that is productive, profitable, and environmentally responsible. This project was undertaken to determine effects of amount of, and split application of, nitrogen on growth and yield of garlic. Levels of urea (CO (NH4)3) and KNO3 (100, 150, or 200 Mt·ha-1) fertilizers were applied at planting or as a split application at planting time and corm formation. There were no differences due to treatment. It is likely that the lowest amount of fertilizer can be used for garlic production. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
PubMed | CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, National Rice Research Institute and University of Arizona
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular genetics and genomics : MGG | Year: 2016
African wild rice Oryza brachyantha (FF), a distant relative of cultivated rice Oryza sativa (AA), carries genes for pests and disease resistance. Molecular marker assisted alien gene introgression from this wild species to its domesticated counterpart is largely impeded due to the scarce availability of cross-transferable and polymorphic molecular markers that can clearly distinguish these two species. Availability of the whole genome sequence (WGS) of both the species provides a unique opportunity to develop markers, which are cross-transferable. We observed poor cross-transferability (~0.75%) of O. sativa specific sequence tagged microsatellite (STMS) markers to O. brachyantha. By utilizing the genome sequence information, we developed a set of 45 low cost PCR based co-dominant polymorphic markers (STS and CAPS). These markers were found cross-transferrable (84.78%) between the two species and could distinguish them from each other and thus allowed tracing alien genome introgression. Finally, we validated a Monosomic Alien Addition Line (MAAL) carrying chromosome 1 of O. brachyantha in O. sativa background using these markers, as a proof of concept. Hence, in this study, we have identified a set molecular marker (comprising of STMS, STS and CAPS) that are capable of detecting alien genome introgression from O. brachyantha to O. sativa.