National Rice Research Institute
National Rice Research Institute
Dash A.K.,National Rice Research Institute |
Samal R.,National Rice Research Institute |
Gundimeda J.N.R.,National Rice Research Institute |
Subudhi H.N.,National Rice Research Institute |
Ravi N.R.,National Rice Research Institute
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2017
Hybrid rice development, a major advance in rice breeding, has demonstrated its immense potential in enhancing the rice productivity. In the three line system of hybrid rice, the restoration of fertility of the widely used wild-abortive type of cytoplasmic male sterility is controlled by Rf3 and Rf4, two fertility restoration genes. Exploration for restorers in diverse genetic backgrounds is a critical step in hybrid rice breeding. As genetic resources constitute the major source of new genes/alleles, an attempt was made to assess the distribution of these two restorer genes in the native populations collected from the geographic regions known to be the primary and secondary centres of origin of rice. In addition, assays were performed on the populations of Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara, the wild progenitors of rice. The results suggest that the Rf genes are well distributed in the wild forms at a higher frequency, more in O. rufipogon, while in cultivated forms, their frequency is low, particularly for the Rf3 gene. The genes and the alleles identified in the genetically divergent, low-performing land races and wild relatives can be successfully employed for the development of new hybrid rice cultivars. Copyright © NIAB 2017
Datta A.,Tata Energy Research Institute |
Datta A.,National Rice Research Institute |
Santra S.C.,Kalyani University |
Adhya T.K.,National Rice Research Institute |
Adhya T.K.,KIIT University
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2017
Mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG: Methane and nitrous oxide) emission from the rice cropland vis-à-vis increasing rice yield is one of the important challenges to the food security and climate change research. N-fertilizer input to the crop land is the key to rice productivity and GHG emission from soil. The sustainability of different types and application methods of N-fertilizers in rice cropland was studies based on the net annual C-equivalent GHG emission (CE) and total financial profit to the farmers’. The study was conducted in a low lying experimental rice field of eastern India during two consecutive years. The experiment was laid down with five replicates of the following treatments: (1) control (no N-fertilizer); (2) broadcasting ammonium sulphate (AS); (3) prilled urea (PU) and (4) deep placement of urea briquette (UB). Compared to other treatments, significantly higher GHG emission and grain yield (5–20% higher over other fertilizer applied plots) were recorded from the PU and UB applied plots respectively. Net CE was calculated using the GHG emission and secondary CE of different processes used in each treatment. The net CE followed the order: PU > UB > Control > AS. The ratio of total grain-C to net CE was significantly higher from the AS (15–51%) and UB (8–34%) plots compared to the PU applied plots. Net financial benefit ($ ha−1) to the farmers’ followed the order: UB > AS > Control > PU. Study indicates that UB may be a climatically sustainable mitigation option in the tropical rice paddy. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
Swain P.,National Rice Research Institute |
Raman A.,International Rice Research Institute |
Singh S.P.,Bihar Agricultural University |
Kumar A.,International Rice Research Institute
Field Crops Research | Year: 2017
In shallow rainfed rice agro-ecosystems, drought stress can occur at any growth stage and can cause a significant yield reduction. During recent years, some rice varieties possessing tolerance of reproductive-stage drought stress have recently been developed. Tolerance of vegetative-stage drought stress is also required to improve rice productivity in drought-prone regions. In this study, we evaluated a set of rice breeding lines for their response to a range of different types of vegetative-stage drought stress in order to propose standardized phenotyping protocols for conducting vegetative-stage drought stress screening trials and also to identify genotypes combining tolerance of vegetative- and reproductive-stage drought stress. A soil water potential threshold of −20 kPa during the vegetative stage was identified as the target for effective selection under vegetative stage with grain yield reduction of about 50% compared to irrigated control trials. Genotypes identified as showing high yield under reproductive-stage drought stress were not necessarily the genotypes showing best performance under vegetative-stage drought stress. Genotypes IR72667-16-1-B-B-3, IR78908-126-B-2-B, and IR79970-B-47-1 showed tolerance of both vegetative-stage and reproductive-stage drought stress. For most, the genotypes that were best under vegetative stage drought or even vegetative stage + reproductive stage drought were different from the genotypes that were best under reproductive stage drought. Based on the cultivar superiority measure, IR69515-6-KKN-4-UBN-4-2-1-1-1 and IR78908-126-B-1-B were the stable genotypes (indicated by low Pi) under both irrigated control and severe vegetative stress conditions, genotypes IR83614-203-B and IR78908-80-B-3-B were stable under irrigated control conditions and moderate stress, whereas IR72667-16-1-B-B-3 was stable under both moderate and severe vegetative-stage stress conditions. © 2017 The Authors
Chattopadhyay K.,National Rice Research Institute |
Marndi B.C.,National Rice Research Institute |
Sarkar R.K.,National Rice Research Institute |
Singh O.N.,National Rice Research Institute
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2017
Significant yield reduction was recorded at flowering stage in rice varieties under salinity stress. But due to high genotype x environment interaction (GEI) the adaptability of the salt tolerant elite lines is generally poor. The identified source of tolerance, AC41585, was used in developing a backcross population. One hundred eighty BC3F4 lines were evaluated under stress (EC 8dSm–1) and non-stress conditions in net-house during the years 2012 and 2013. Under salinity stress plant yield was observed to be associated positively with the number of panicles/plant, panicle length, harvest index and negatively with the percentage of spikelet sterility and degeneration. Genotypes such as, L-41, L-45, L-112, L-171, L-192 with low IPCA and higher mean were identified with general adaptability through AMMI analysis. In addition, ‘which-won-where’ pattern of GGE Biplot detected L-192 and L-41 as highest performing genotypes in saline and non-saline environments, respectively. Both the analyses identified stable introgression line L-171 with high yield stability index having phenotypic similarity with recurrent parent, IR 64. The elite lines selected through the present study could be used in rice breeding and also to investigate the molecular basis of salt tolerance at reproductive stage. © 2017, Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding. All rights reserved.
Chauhan R.,Jawaharlal Nehru University |
Chauhan R.,University of Delhi |
Datta A.,Tata Energy Research Institute |
Ramanathan A.L.,Jawaharlal Nehru University |
And 2 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2017
The diverse habitat of the mangrove ecosystems all over the globe are under continuous threat of conversion for immediate and/or short-term economic benefits. Nonetheless, the emission of climatically relevant greenhouse gases increases with the disturbance of the mangrove sediment −this might undermine the credible reservoir of carbon within the sediment. This article attempts to estimate the environmental (carbon emission) and economic consequences of converting mangrove to cropland (especially rice paddy) based on field-scale study at three different sites (Khola, Gupti and Damra) within the Bhitarkanika mangrove for two consecutive years. The study suggests that the cumulative methane (CH4) emission was significantly higher from the rice paddy (211.3 kg ha−1) compared to the mangrove sediment (50.8 kg ha−1), while the average nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was significantly higher from the later (2.1 kg ha−1). Multivariate statistical analysis suggests that the land use was the prime controlling factor for variation in CH4 and N2O emission. Total carbon equivalent emission (CEETOT) from the rice paddy was significantly higher than mangrove during the study period. The study suggests that the economic value of the mangrove ecosystem was several folds higher than that of the rice paddy. The CEETOT of the Bhitarkanika mangrove has increased approximately 212 Gg over last few decades due to the conversion of the mangrove area to the rice paddy. Such studies are imperative in developing effective regional climate change adaptation strategies. The study advocates urgent need to educate and aware people about the benefits of the mangrove compared to the cropland. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Anandan A.,National Rice Research Institute |
Anumalla M.,National Rice Research Institute |
Pradhan S.K.,National Rice Research Institute |
Ali J.,International Rice Research Institute
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016
Early seedling vigor (ESV) is the essential trait for direct seeded rice to dominate and smother the weed growth. In this regard, 629 rice genotypes were studied for their morphological and physiological responses in the field under direct seeded aerobic situation on 14th, 28th and 56th days after sowing (DAS). It was determined that the early observations taken on 14th and 28th DAS were reliable estimators to study ESV as compared to56th DAS. Further, 96 were selected from 629 genotypes by principal component (PCA) and discriminate function analyses. The selected genotypes were subjected to decipher the pattern of genetic diversity in terms of both phenotypic and genotypic by using ESV QTL linked simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. To assess the genetic structure, model and distance based approaches were used. Genotyping of 96 rice lines using 39 polymorphic SSRs produced a total of 128 alleles with the phenotypic information content (PIC) value of 0.24. The model based population structure approach grouped the accession into two distinct populations, whereas unrooted tree grouped the genotypes into three clusters. Both model based and structure based approach had clearly distinguished the early vigor genotypes from nonearly vigor genotypes. Association analysis revealed that 16 and 10 SSRs showed significant association with ESV traits by general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) approaches respectively. Marker alleles on chromosome 2 were associated with shoot dry weight on 28 DAS, vigor index on 14 and 28 DAS. Improvement in the rate of seedling growth will be useful for identifying rice genotypes acquiescent to direct seeded conditions through marker-assisted selection. © 2016 Anandan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Prabhukarthikeyan S.R.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University |
Prabhukarthikeyan S.R.,National Rice Research Institute |
Raguchander T.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2016
The production of one or more antibiotics is the mechanism most commonly associated with the ability of fluorescent pseudomonads to act as antagonistic agents against plant pathogenic fungi. Pseudomonas fluorescens strains were tested for antifungal activity against Pythium aphanidermatum that is known to attack turmeric crops. P. fluorescens produce antibiotics such as phenazine 1- carboxylic acid, 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyoluteorin and pyrrolnitrin. Production of antibiotic compounds were assayed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The antifungal compounds of DAPG, phenazine and pyoluteorin were identified on TLC at Rf value of 0.88, 0.57 and 0.05 respectively. All the antibiotics extracted from different strains of P. fluorescens were tested for their antifungal activity against P. aphanidermatum. Among the strains, the antibiotics extracted from strain FP7 effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of P. aphanidermatum in agar well diffusion assay.
Raghu S.,National Rice Research Institute |
Benagi V.I.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad |
Nargund V.B.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2016
Variability among 44 isolates of Fusarium spp. the Chilli wilt pathogen, collected from different locations of south India was studied in respect of Cultural and morphological and pathogenic variability. The colony diameter ranged from 60 mm to 90 mm after 8 days of inoculation incubated at 27±1°C. The colony colour varied from white, cream and violet with yellow coloured pigmentation on Potato dextrose agar. The growth on different solid media revealed that the best media was Potato dextrose agar (90 mm) with abundant sporulation followed by oat meal agar and V-8 juice agar. The colour of the colony also varied from white, cottony, cream and greyish in different media. As for the pathogenic variability is concerned the isolates showed variations in causing disease in different varieties of chilli and these isolates were clustered into three groups based the disease reaction.
Olfati J.-A.,Guilan University |
Mahdieh-Najafabadi M.-B.,Guilan University |
Rabiee M.,National Rice Research Institute
Comunicata Scientiae | Year: 2016
Garlic is primarily grown for its cloves used mostly as a food flavoring condiment. Previous studies carried out on plant density indicate its direct influence on yield. Plant density depends on the genotype, environmental factors, cultural practices, etc. This study was established to determine the effects of different between-row spacing on growth, yield, and quality of four local accession of garlic. It was laid out on two-factorial Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications during two years. Four local accession of garlic (Langroud, Tarom, Tabriz and Hamedan) were culture in three between-rows spacing (15, 25 and 35 cm) during two years. The results of two cultivated years were different. Plant density changed when garlic cultured with different between row spacing. In present research plant yield increased when the lower between row spacing and high plant density were used but the yield improvement occurring at increased plant stand is offset by the reduction in bulb size and some quality indices such as total phenol and antioxidant which severely affects quality and market value, when garlic is produced for fresh market.
PubMed | CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, National Rice Research Institute and University of Arizona
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular genetics and genomics : MGG | Year: 2016
African wild rice Oryza brachyantha (FF), a distant relative of cultivated rice Oryza sativa (AA), carries genes for pests and disease resistance. Molecular marker assisted alien gene introgression from this wild species to its domesticated counterpart is largely impeded due to the scarce availability of cross-transferable and polymorphic molecular markers that can clearly distinguish these two species. Availability of the whole genome sequence (WGS) of both the species provides a unique opportunity to develop markers, which are cross-transferable. We observed poor cross-transferability (~0.75%) of O. sativa specific sequence tagged microsatellite (STMS) markers to O. brachyantha. By utilizing the genome sequence information, we developed a set of 45 low cost PCR based co-dominant polymorphic markers (STS and CAPS). These markers were found cross-transferrable (84.78%) between the two species and could distinguish them from each other and thus allowed tracing alien genome introgression. Finally, we validated a Monosomic Alien Addition Line (MAAL) carrying chromosome 1 of O. brachyantha in O. sativa background using these markers, as a proof of concept. Hence, in this study, we have identified a set molecular marker (comprising of STMS, STS and CAPS) that are capable of detecting alien genome introgression from O. brachyantha to O. sativa.