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Olfati J.-A.,Guilan University | Mahdieh-Najafabadi M.-B.,Guilan University | Rabiee M.,National Rice Research Institute
Comunicata Scientiae | Year: 2016

Garlic is primarily grown for its cloves used mostly as a food flavoring condiment. Previous studies carried out on plant density indicate its direct influence on yield. Plant density depends on the genotype, environmental factors, cultural practices, etc. This study was established to determine the effects of different between-row spacing on growth, yield, and quality of four local accession of garlic. It was laid out on two-factorial Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications during two years. Four local accession of garlic (Langroud, Tarom, Tabriz and Hamedan) were culture in three between-rows spacing (15, 25 and 35 cm) during two years. The results of two cultivated years were different. Plant density changed when garlic cultured with different between row spacing. In present research plant yield increased when the lower between row spacing and high plant density were used but the yield improvement occurring at increased plant stand is offset by the reduction in bulb size and some quality indices such as total phenol and antioxidant which severely affects quality and market value, when garlic is produced for fresh market.

Prabhukarthikeyan S.R.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Prabhukarthikeyan S.R.,National Rice Research Institute | Raguchander T.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2016

The production of one or more antibiotics is the mechanism most commonly associated with the ability of fluorescent pseudomonads to act as antagonistic agents against plant pathogenic fungi. Pseudomonas fluorescens strains were tested for antifungal activity against Pythium aphanidermatum that is known to attack turmeric crops. P. fluorescens produce antibiotics such as phenazine 1- carboxylic acid, 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyoluteorin and pyrrolnitrin. Production of antibiotic compounds were assayed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The antifungal compounds of DAPG, phenazine and pyoluteorin were identified on TLC at Rf value of 0.88, 0.57 and 0.05 respectively. All the antibiotics extracted from different strains of P. fluorescens were tested for their antifungal activity against P. aphanidermatum. Among the strains, the antibiotics extracted from strain FP7 effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of P. aphanidermatum in agar well diffusion assay.

Hassanpour B.,University of Tehran | Parsinejad M.,University of Tehran | Yazdani M.R.,University of Tehran | Yazdani M.R.,National Rice Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Irrigation and Drainage | Year: 2011

The computer simulation hydrologic model DRAINMOD and modified DRAINMOD (Luo et al. 2000) for cold condition was used to predict the performance of surface drainage and yield of canola as post-rice cultivation during the wet growing season of 2004-2005 in Rasht Iran. Performance of surface drainage system treatments with 2m spacing and 15cm drain depth as compared with plots having no drainage (4×10m 2) were used to evaluate the models. Evaluation of predicted daily groundwater table depths as compared with measured values shows that the root mean square error (RMSE) was about 10.2 and 9.9cm for DRAINMOD versus 11.0 and 11.5 for modified DRAINMOD in 2m drain spacing and no drainage treatment respectively. Original DRAINMOD and modified DRAINMOD predictions for groundwater table depth was on average about 4 and 7% less than measured values for the surface drainage treatment and 22 and 14% greater for the no drainage treatment whereas the standard error of original DRAINMOD was 1.4 and 1.51 (cm) respectively. The average absolute deviations were 8.67 and 9.22 (cm). However by using the modified DRAINMOD these values were decreased to 1.34 1.3 8.05 and 8.19cm respectively. Comparisons show that modifications introduced in DRAINMOD for snowy conditions improved the capability of the model to predict groundwater table fluctuations. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Ghosh S.,University of Calcutta | Ghosh S.,Scottish Church College | Molla K.A.,University of Calcutta | Molla K.A.,National Rice Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2016

Phytophthora infestans is the pathogen responsible for late blight disease of potato. Multiple spraying of crop protection chemicals is so far the only means to control the disease. Despite the continuous effort from breeders, late blight resistant potato varieties are not available to farmers. In this context, development of genetic resistance by incorporating new genes through genetic engineering is an attractive way to combat the pathogen. Here, we report the development of transgenic potato cultivars overexpressing the rice oxalate oxidase 4 gene (Osoxo4). Transgenic lines showed higher activity of oxalate oxidase enzyme and were able to degrade externally applied oxalic acid. The levels of reactive oxygen H2O2 were elevated in transgenic plants. The transcription of defense related genes (anionic peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase) was found to be elevated after pathogen inoculation. Detached leaf bioassays with spore suspension and in vitro plantlet bioassays with mycelia of P. infestans showed enhanced resistance in transgenic plants. Interestingly, constitutive overexpression of Osoxo4 did not show any effect on the morphology and yield of transgenic potato plants as evident from agronomic performance studies. Thus, constitutive expression of Osoxo4 represents an efficient strategy for engineering late blight resistance in potato. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Olfati J.A.,Guilan University | Piree M.,Guilan University | Rabiee M.,National Rice Research Institute | Sheykhtaher Z.,Guilan University
International Journal of Vegetable Science | Year: 2014

If appropriate amounts of fertilizers are not applied during production, physiological symptoms of deficiency can occur in garlic (Allium sativum L.). Most producers use synthetic fertilizers because they are easy to transport, quickly available to plants, and produce high yields. However, nitrate levels in the soil should be kept to a level where leaching is not a problem. Split nitrogen (N) fertilizer applications can play a role in a nutrient management strategy that is productive, profitable, and environmentally responsible. This project was undertaken to determine effects of amount of, and split application of, nitrogen on growth and yield of garlic. Levels of urea (CO (NH4)3) and KNO3 (100, 150, or 200 Mt·ha-1) fertilizers were applied at planting or as a split application at planting time and corm formation. There were no differences due to treatment. It is likely that the lowest amount of fertilizer can be used for garlic production. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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