Khartoum, Sudan

National Ribat University
Khartoum, Sudan

The National Ribat University is a university based in the city of Khartoum, Sudan.The President of the Republic is the sponsor of the University.The University Council is chaired by the Minister of Interior, and the Director General of Sudanese Police Forces is his deputy.The university is ranked 10,402 in the world, third in Sudan. In Sudan, it ranks below the University of Khartoum and the Sudan University of Science and Technology, above Karary University and the International University of Africa.Initially the university had three faculties: Police science and Law, Medicine and Nursing science.Since then additional faculties have been added: Police Higher Academy, Pharmacy, Medical Laboratory science, Radiological science and Nuclear Medicine, Medicine and Dental Technology, Economic, Administrative & Financial science, Environmental Studies and Disaster Prevention, Computer Studies, Languages and Translation, Abdusalam Elkhabir Faculty for Islamic and Quranic Studies, Technology and Health science, Graduate and Scientific Research, Architecture and Information. Wikipedia.

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Hassouna M.,National Ribat University | Barry B.,University of Khartoum | Bashier E.,University of Khartoum
International Journal of Network Security | Year: 2017

Despite the fact that the traditional public key infrastructure provides Level 3 trusted authority, but its two major problems of scalability and certificate management raised the need to an alternative security infrastructure. That motivated the appearance of new technologies to replace the traditional PKI, such as the Identity based encryption, the certificateless encryption, etc. But all those new technologies are yet immature and could not introduce a trust level more than Level 2, except few trials at the level of the authority. This paper aims at introducing an integrated hierarchal certificateless scheme with a Level 3 trust authority. This is done through merging the traditional PKI hierarchy and the certificateless technology in one scheme. The new scheme employs the X509 certificate format and is free of the scalability and certificate management problems of the PKI. We also describe how our new hierarchal certificateless PKC, can be integrated with a traditional PKI through a bridge model.

Imad H.,King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences | Yasir G.,National Ribat University
Pan African Medical Journal | Year: 2015

Introduction: This study aims at describing the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, severity, reversibility testing and response to treatment using simple spirometry in asthmatic patients attending a model specialized Asthma Care Center. Methods: Eligible subjects must have a suggestive clinical picture and confirmed by spirometry to have a 12% plus 200ml absolute increase in FEV1 either by reversibility testing or after a therapeutic trial with inhaled and/or oral steroid therapy. Budesonide-Formoterol Turbohaler was used for reversibility testing and for maintenance therapy with or without the addition of oral prednisolone. Results: One hundred and nineteen patients were eligible for the study. Age ranged between 10 -70 years. One hundred and thirteen patients (95.0%) had an FEV1 less than 80% of predicted. One hundred and five patients (88.2%) had reversibility testing of whom 72 (68.6%) had a significant reversibility. Sixty two patients (52.1%) were prescribed Budesonide-Formoterol Turbohaler only whilst 57 were prescribed both Budesonide-Formoterol Turbohaler and oral prednisolone. Patients were reviewed after a mean of 14.9 days (range 6.0-28.0). Seventy two patients (60.5%) had increased their FEV1 to more than 80% of their predicted value. By logistic regression analysis, predicted FEV1 at baseline was a significant negative predictor of a complete response. Conclusion: Most patients had abnormal spirometry with more than half having an FEV1 that is 60% or less of their predicted normal reading. Reversibility testing using Budesonide-Formoterol Turbohaler confirmed the fast onset of action of its Formoterol component and helped in cutting the cost of this test. The majority improved with treatment with 60% normalizing their spirometry highlighting the feasibility and applicability of specialized asthma care centers in resource-poor countries. © Hassan Imad et al.

Kashif A.H.,University of Khartoum | Adam G.K.,University of Gadarif | Mohmmed A.A.,National Ribat University | Elzaki S.E.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Diagnostic Pathology | Year: 2013

Background: Diagnosing Plasmodium falciparum malaria during pregnancy is a great challenge for clinicians because of the low density of parasites in the peripheral blood and parasite sequestration in the placenta. Nevertheless, few data on the use of malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) during pregnancy have been published.Methods: P. falciparum infections were assessed in 156 febrile pregnant women by microscopic examination of their blood smears and by RDT and polymerase chain reactions (PCR). In addition, 150 women were assessed at the time of delivery by microscopy, RDT, PCR and placental histology investigations. The study was conducted at the Gadarif Hospital, Eastern Sudan. The SD Bioline P. f / P. v (Bio Standard Diagnostics, Gurgaon, Korea) RDT kit was evaluated in this study. Results: Among the febrile pregnant women, 17 (11.0%), 26 (16.7%) and 18 (11.5%) positive cases of P. falciparum were detected by microscopy, RDT, and PCR, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the microscopy was 94.4% and 100%, respectively. The corresponding values for RDT evaluation were 83.3% and 92.0%, as compared with PCR as the gold standard.While there were no detected cases of malaria by microscopic examination of blood smears, 27 (18.0%), 21(14.0%) and 46 (30.7%) out of the 150 placentae investigated had P. falciparum as determined by RDT, PCR, and histology, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for RDT was 17.4% and 81.7%, respectively. The corresponding values for PCR were 6.5% and 82.7%, where histology was used as the gold standard.Conclusions: The RDT kit used in this study has poor performance for peripheral and placental P. falciparum malaria detection in this setting.Virtual slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: © 2013 Kashif et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Mohammed A.H.,University of Khartoum | Salih M.M.,University of Khartoum | Elhassan E.M.,University of Gezira | Mohmmed A.A.,National Ribat University | And 3 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Malaria, which frequently occurs in pregnant women in the tropics, is a leading cause of maternal anaemia and low birth weight (LBW) in infants. Few data exist concerning malaria infections that are present at submicroscopic levels during pregnancy and their LBW delivery in babies. Methods. A case-control study (87 in each group) was conducted at the Medani Hospital, Central Sudan. Cases were women who had LBW deliveries where the infants weighed < 2,500 g. Controls were parturient women without having LBW babies. Obstetrical and medical characteristics were gathered from both groups through structured questionnaires. Both cases and controls were investigated for malaria using microscopic blood film analysis, placental histology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Microscopic and PCR analyses were conducted on maternal peripheral blood, placenta, and umbilical cord samples. Infant weights were recorded immediately after birth. Results: Plasmodium falciparum-positive blood films were not obtained from any of the women (cases or controls). Twenty-seven (31.0%) versus 22 (25.3%) (P = 0.500) of the cases and controls, respectively, had placental malaria infections as determined by histological examination. In comparison to the controls, the submicroscopic malaria infection prevalence rates were significantly higher in the cases; 24 (27.6%) vs six (7.0%), P < 0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that while malaria infection of the placenta (based on histology) was not associated with LBW, submicroscopic P. falciparum infection (OR = 6.89, 95% CI = 2.2-20.8; P = 0.001), or a combination of histologically determined and submicroscopic infections (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.2-4.9; P = 0.012), were significantly associated with LBW. Conclusion: In Central Sudan, pregnant women were at a higher risk of having an LBW delivery if they had submicroscopic infections rather than a histological diagnosis of placental malaria. © 2013 Mohammed et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Ahmed A.M.M.,National Ribat University | Galib M.B.,National Ribat University
Arab Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2012

Background: Aside from acute viral hepatitides intracellular cholestasis is seen less often with the use of certain drugs, contrast media, leptospirosis and congenital hyperbilirubinaemias. Types of liver injuries complicating malaria usually take the form of acute hepatitis or haemolytic anaemias rather than cholestasis. We report here a rare presentation where a typical intracellular cholestatic picture complicated malaria falciparum in a patient residing in an endemic area. Patient and methods: A 55. year old bank manager presented with malaria fever and deep jaundice for investigations. CBC, LFT, renal function, coagulation profile, liver function test, viral hepatitis markers for HBV and HCV including PCR, U/S liver, MRI liver, CT brain, full septic screen, thin and thick Giemsa-stained blood films and ICT for malaria, . leptospira Abs and ANA. Results: Total bilirubin 22. mg/dl, conjugated 19. mg/dl, ALT 49, AST 65, alkaline phosphatase 176 (normal), serum albumin 3.5. mg/dl, INR 0.9, urea 98. mg/dl, creatinine 2.3. mg/dl, Hb 8.8, platelet 263, WBC 11000, MCV 84, Coomb's test negative, haptoglobulin levels: normal, blood culture: negative, HBVDNA and HCVRNA: negative, ANA: negative, blood film and ICT for malaria: positive then turned negative after artemether treatment, . leptospira Abs titres for six species including L haeorragiae at days 7, 14 and 60, were: <1/10 negative. Liver U/S normal, MRCP: normal and CT brain: normal patient fully recovered with anti-malarial agent artemether and short course of renal support (haemofiltration). Conclusion: In cases of severe intracellular cholestasis malaria infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis particularly in malaria endemic localities. This rare complication of a common disorder is potentially treatable. © 2012 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology.

Abdelsatir S.,National Ribat University
Arab journal of nephrology and transplantation | Year: 2013

Hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are important health problems worldwide, and it is possible to reduce their burden through effective HTN screening and treatment programs. It may be feasible to incorporate such programs in the community outreach activities of nursing and medical schools in Sudan. Village inhabitants in the Northern state of Sudan were invited to attend a free clinic for screening of hypertension as well as for follow up and treatment of persons with previously diagnosed hypertension. Fourth year nursing students from the National Ribat University were asked to record demographic data and blood pressure measurements for the attendants of the clinic. A total of 389 adults were screened, their mean age was 41±15 years and 83.8% of them were females. Family history of HTN, DM and CKD was reported by 52.7%, 40.4% and 12.9% respectively. Personal history of HTN, DM and CKD was reported by 28.5%, 17% and 6.4% respectively. The overall prevalence of HTN was 39.6%. Among persons previously diagnosed as hypertensive, 80.2% were on antihypertensive medication but only 48.6% had blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg. Among the 278 persons with no personal history of HTN, 19.1% had blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg. Variables significantly and independently associated with the presence of HTN were family history of HTN (OR: 6.4, P: 0.005), less than 10 years of formal education (OR: 3.5, P: 0.000) and age ≥ 40 years (OR: 2.4, P: 0.005). With proper coordination, nursing and medical students can effectively contribute to the implementation of hypertension screening programs.

Bashir A.A.,Imam Elmahdi University | Musa O.A.A.,National Ribat University
Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal | Year: 2012

To determine normal values of respiratory function for Sudanese, a randomized stratified cross-sectional study was performed on 2250 healthy Sudanese aged 7-86 years in 2002-05. Data were obtained through a questionnaire, pulmonary function testing and taking anthropometric measurements. Lung function and anthropometric measurements were correlated and regression equations were derived. Sudanese of Arab ethnic background had significantly higher forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 (first) second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) than those of African ethnicity. In adults a positive correlation was found between lung function and height and a negative correlation with age. Gender and ethnic variations in Sudanese lung function were confirmed. Comparisons were made with data from other international studies. These values can be used as reference values in respiratory clinics in Sudan.

Adam I.,University of Khartoum | Elhassan E.M.,University of Gezira | Mohmmed A.A.,National Ribat University | Salih M.M.,University of Khartoum | Elbashir M.I.,University of Khartoum
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Background: Placental malaria and pre-eclampsia occur frequently in women in tropics and are leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidities and mortality. Few data exist concerning the interaction between placental malaria and pre-eclampsia. Methods. A case control study was conducted in Medani Hospital, which locates in an area of unstable malaria transmission in Central Sudan. Case (N = 143) were women with pre-eclampsia, which was defined as systolic blood presure140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure 90 mm Hg and proteinuria. Controls were parturient women (N = 143) without any blood pressure values > 139/89 mm Hg or proteinuria. Obstetrical and medical characteristics were gathered from both groups through structured questionnaires. Placental histopathology examinations for malaria were performed. Results: Twenty-eight (19.6%) vs. 16 (11.2%); P = 0.04 of the cases vs. controls, had placental malaria infections. Five (2%), 1 (2%) and 22 (28.0%) vs. 1, 2 and 13 of the placentae showed acute, chronic and past infection on histopathology examination in the two groups respectively, while 115 (80.4%) vs.127 (88.8%) of them showed no infection, P = 0.04. In multivariate analysis, while there were no associations between age, parity, educational level, lack of antenatal care, blood groups and body mass index and pre-eclampsia; family history of hypertension and placental malaria (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.0-5.2; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with pre-eclampsia. Conclusion: Placental malaria was associated with pre-eclampsia. Further research is needed. © 2011 Adam et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Sayed S.A.M.,National Ribat University | Abu-Aisha H.,National Ribat University | Ahmed M.E.,University of Gezira | Elamin S.,University of Khartoum
Peritoneal Dialysis International | Year: 2013

{black diamond suit} Introduction: After a training period, patients maintained on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) assume responsibility for their own treatment. With the aid of appropriate tools, home visits help with ongoing evaluation and training for these patients. {black diamond suit} Methods: We conducted a home visit survey of 50 patients maintained on CAPD in Sudan between April 2009 and June 2010. Housing conditions, home environment, and patient's or caregiver's knowledge about peritoneal dialysis and the exchange procedure were evaluated using structured data collection sheets. Scores were compared with infection rates in the patients before the home visit. {black diamond suit} Results: Patients were maintained on CAPD for a median duration of 11 months. Their mean age was 42 ± 23 years; 70% were male; and 14% had diabetes. Only 34% of patients had suitable housing conditions, and 56% required assisted PD. Of the autonomous patients and assisting family members, 11.6% were illiterate. The median achieved knowledge score was 11.5 of 35 points. The median achieved exchange score was 15 of 20 points. Knowledge and exchange scores were positively and significantly correlated (R = 0.5, p = 0.00). More patients in the upper quartile than in the middle and lower quartiles of knowledge scores were adherent to daily exit-site care (33.3% vs 5.3%, p = 0.02). Compared with patients in the middle and lower quartiles of knowledge score, patients in the upper quartile had lower rates of peritonitis, exit-site infection, and hospitalization. {black diamond suit} Conclusions: The proposed evaluation form is a valid and reliable assessment tool for the follow-up of CAPD patients. Patients in the upper quartile of knowledge score demonstrated better adherence to the recommended treatment protocols and lower infection rates. © 2013 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

Abdelsatir S.,National Ribat University
Arab journal of nephrology and transplantation | Year: 2013

In hemodialysis (HD) wards, nurses play a pivotal role in HD access care. Unfortunately, guideline recommendations for routine preventive care are not always followed. This study was designed to evaluate nurses' awareness and practice of HD access care in Khartoum state, Sudan. The study included 50 randomly selected HD nurses. Nurses' knowledge was evaluated using a participant-filled questionnaire and their practice was evaluated by direct monitoring. Variables were summarized as frequencies and related to nurses' educational level. Females constituted 72% of study participants and 85% were university graduates. Half the nurses had more than two years experience in HD centers. Structured training on HD machines and HD access care was received by 56% and 54% of respondents respectively. All participants stated that proper HD access care helps prevent access infection but only 54% stated that it helps in preserving access function. Most nurses (98%) stated that hand hygiene in HD centers was necessary to prevent infection but only 70% were adherent to hand hygiene before access manipulation. Most nurses (98%) evaluated HD access function before connection but only 52% evaluated it for signs of infection. Nurses with a bachelor degree tended to be more adherent to hand hygiene (72.5 versus 42.9%, P=0.1) and the use of gloves (100% versus 85.7%, P=0.1) compared to nurses with a diploma degree, but the difference was not statistically significant. HD nurses adherence to the recommended infection control measures in studied HD centers was suboptimal. HD centers are required to organize adequate training on HD access care for their nursing staff.

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