National Research Nuclear University MEPhI
Moscow, Russia

National Research Nuclear University MEPhI / NRNU MEPhI, NIYaU MEPhI or MEPhI) is one of the most recognized technical universities in Russia. MEPhI was founded in 1942 as the Moscow Mechanical Institute of Munitions , but it was soon renamed the Moscow Mechanical Institute. Its original mission was to train skilled personnel for the Soviet military and atomic programs. It was renamed the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute in 1953, which was its name until 2009.By the Order of the Government of Russia, issued by the Russian Government on April 8, 2009 on behalf of Russian President's Decree of October 7, 2008 "On the pilot project launching on creating National Research Universities" the university MEPhI was granted this new status. The university was reorganized. The aim of the university existence is now preparing the specialists by giving them higher professional, post-graduation professional, secondary professional and additional professional education, as well as educational and scientific activities. Wikipedia.

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Turbulence in clear skies comprises the most unpleasant kind of vortex drifts in air travel. These occur in cloudless space with perfect visibility when an airplane travels between air flows that differ in direction, speed of movement, temperature and density. This is the kind of turbulence that Aeroflot flight SU-270 from Moscow to Bangkok experienced, resulting in 27 injuries of varying severity. Such turbulence is impossible to detect in advance, and experts believe early warning for pilots could mitigate injuries to travelers and flight crews. Scientists are developing techniques for distant detection of turbulence in clear skies. Russian physicists from the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI suggest using a "muon hodoscope," which traces muon trajectories in the atmosphere for detection of zones of possible turbulence. Muons are elementary particles that result from interaction of space articles (protons and nuclei) with Earth's atmosphere. As they pass through the atmosphere, muons lose energy, and their flow changes. The quantity of lost energy depends on characteristics of the atmosphere. Electromagnetic fields, temperature, air rarity and water vapor content all influence muon energy. It is possible to trace, describe, and predict atmosphere processes by the character of changes in muon flow. Professor Igor Yashin says, "The hodoscope records changes of each muon, producing a picture of the atmosphere that is similar to X-ray imaging. Currently, we have a working stationary hodoscope called HURRICANE, and a mobile version of the detector." The device is portable, and powered by a small electronic generator or a domestic socket. "The main question for us is the device calibration at real events," Igor Yashin explains. "We can trace any processes in the atmosphere where there are large-scale changes of the density gradient. The incident above Thailand involved a reported 700-meter 'air pocket,' which means that in this zone, there was very high air rarity—we would definitely see it with the help of a hodoscope. Using muon diagnostics, we can see the atmosphere in real-time, and predict the development of powerful atmospheric phenomena at heights of up to 15 km. It is only necessary to create a network of similar devices." Explore further: Russian scientists' method allows forecast hurricanes more precisely

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: INCO.2012-2.1 | Award Amount: 1.79M | Year: 2012

The overall strategy of BILAT-RUS 2 puts the three main issues of the Capacities work programme into practice. It will provide input for the EU-Commission on the state of EU-Russian STI cooperation; contribute to coordinate research policies and programmes of European Member States, Associated Countries and the EU-Commission; enhance information collection and dissemination as regards STI between Russia and the EU; raise awareness of researchers in Russia and the EU for cooperation potentials; monitor the existing STI cooperation praxis and facilitate the implementation of a sustainable cooperation support system; analyse the Russian innovation system and provide support for enhanced implementation of R&D results; deliver a feasibility study for a common representation of European scientific institutions in Russia. One of the major success factors is the close continuous dialogue and the coordination of activities with Russian and European authorities, addressing in particular the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (MON), responsible Ministries/Agencies in EU Member States and the EU Commission. The individual activities and tasks that are proposed in the work packages of the project cover a wide array of activities. They include general information and awareness raising activities, the maintenance of the established web-portal with data and knowledge bases on STI issues as well as a inventory and analysis of existing cooperation instruments, the preparation of three yearly analytical reports on the state of EU-Russian STI cooperation, the publication of guidelines for better implementation of R&D results, a feasibility study for a common representation of European scientific organisations in Russia, as well as a mobility grant scheme. Also, activities include the establishment of an external quality control body and an Advisory Board.

Morozov A.,National Research Nuclear University MEPhI
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2016

Differential expansion (DE) for a Wilson loop average in representation R is built to respect degenerations of representations for small groups. At the same time it behaves nicely under some changes of the loop, e.g. of some knots in the case of 3d Chern–Simons theory. Especially simple is the relation between the DE for the trefoil 31 and for the figure eight knot 41. Since arbitrary colored HOMFLY for the trefoil are known from the Rosso–Jones formula, it is therefore enough to find their DE in order to make a conjecture for the figure eight. We fulfill this program for all rectangular representation R=[rs], i.e. make a plausible conjecture for the rectangularly colored HOMFLY of the figure eight knot, which generalizes the old result for totally symmetric and antisymmetric representations. © 2016 The Author(s)

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: Fission-2011-5.1.1 | Award Amount: 2.24M | Year: 2011

The essence of the project is to provide a special purpose structure for training and qualification of personnel for serving VVER technology as one of nuclear power options used in EU. Such approach should allow unifying existing VVER related training schemes according to IAEA standards and commonly accepted criteria recognized in EU. The structure is based on three general pillars: 1) Training schemes for VVER nuclear professionals; for non-nuclear specialists and subcontractors, involved in nuclear sector; and for students; 2) VVER related knowledge management system, which will accumulate information regarding design data, operational experience, training materials, etc.; and 3) Specialized regional training center for supporting VVER customers with theoretical and practical training sessions, training materials and general and special assignment training tools and facilities. The wider objective of the project is to implement the Council Conclusions of 1 - 2 December 2008 related to skills in the nuclear field: new skills and competences are needed in the context of the Nuclear Renaissance and to fulfill obligations under Article 7 of the COUNCIL DIRECTIVE (EURATOM) establishing a Community; framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations. The specific objectives of the project are: - enhancing safety and performance of nuclear installations with VVER technology through specialized initial and continuous training of personnel involved; - keeping the adequate level of safety culture; - contributing to the development of Knowledge Management System for VVER technology; - preserving and further developing nuclear competencies, skills and knowledge related to VVER technology, as a technology used in the EU.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: NFRP-10-2014 | Award Amount: 2.06M | Year: 2015

The main objective of the proposed CORONA II project is to enhance the safety of nuclear installations through further improvement of the training capabilities aimed at building up the necessary personnel competencies. Specific objective of the proposed CORONA II project is to proceed with the development of state-of-the-art regional training center for VVER competence (which will be called CORONA Academy), whose pilot implementation through CORONA project (2011-2014) proved to be viable solution for supporting transnational mobility and lifelong learning amongst VVER operating countries. The project aims at continuation of the European cooperation and support in the area for preservation and further development of expertise in the nuclear field by improvement of higher education and training. This objective will be realized through networking between universities, research organisations, regulatory bodies, industry and any other organisations involved in the application of nuclear science, ionising radiation and nuclear safety. The proposed CORONA Academy will maintain the nuclear expertise by gathering the existing and generating new knowledge in the VVER area. It will bring together the most experienced trainers in the different aspects of the area within EU and abroad, thus overcoming the mobility challenge that stands ahead the nuclear education and training community. The selected form of the CORONA Academy, together with the online availability of the training opportunities will allow trainees from different locations to access the needed knowledge on demand. The available set of courses will cover the whole range of training of VVER specialists from the university until reaching high professional skills and competences in the area.

Petrukhin A.A.,National Research Nuclear University MEPhI
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2014

The term "muon puzzle" was formulated at International Symposium on Future Directions in UHECR Physics in CERN 13-16 February 2012. In this paper, various aspects of muon puzzle are considered. Obtained experimental data can be divided into two types: muon bundle excess compared to simulations which is increasing with the increase of primary particle energy, and the excess of very-high-energy muons (>100TeV) in the muon energy spectrum. One of the possible (and realistic) solutions of the muon puzzle is the hypothesis about production of blobs of quark-gluon matter with large orbital momentum in nucleus-nucleus interactions at energies more than several PeV. Possibilities of the check of this hypothesis are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

V Popruzhenko S.,National Research Nuclear University MEPhI
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

The history and current status of the Keldysh theory of strong field ionization are reviewed. The focus is on the fundamentals of the theory, its most important applications and those aspects which still raise difficulties and remain under discussion. The Keldysh theory is compared with other nonperturbative analytic methods of strong field atomic physics and its important generalizations are discussed. Among the difficulties, the gauge invariance problem, the tunneling time concept, the conditions of applicability and the application of the theory to ionization of systems more complex than atoms, including molecules and dielectrics, are considered. Possible prospects for the future development of the theory are also discussed. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Shemetov A.A.,National Research Nuclear University MEPhI | Nabiev I.,Trinity College Dublin | Sukhanova A.,Trinity College Dublin
ACS Nano | Year: 2012

Figure Persented: The interaction of proteins in living cells is one of the key processes in the maintenance of their homeostasis. Introduction of additional agents into the chain of these interactions may influence homeostatic processes. Recent advances in nanotechnologies have led to a wide use of nanoparticles (NPs) in industrial and biomedical applications. NPs are small enough to enter almost all compartments of the body, including cells and organelles, and to complicate the pattern of protein interactions. In some cases, interaction of nanoscale objects with proteins leads to hazardous consequences, such as abnormal conformational changes leading to exposure of cryptic peptide epitopes or the appearance of abnormal functions caused by structural modifications. In addition, the high local protein concentration resulting from protein adsorption on NPs may provoke avidity effects arising from close spatial repetition of the same protein. Finally, the interaction of NPs with proteins is known to induce cooperative effects, such as promotion or inhibition of protein fibrillation or self-assembling of NPs on macromolecules serving as a template. It is obvious that better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of nano-bio interactions is crucial for further advances in all nanotechnological applications. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the interactions between proteins or peptides and NPs in order to predict the structural, functional, and/or nanotoxic consequences of these interactions. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Khlopov M.,National Research Nuclear University MEPhI
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2013

The nonbaryonic dark matter of the universe is assumed to consist of new stable forms of matter. Their stability reflects symmetry of micro-world and mechanisms of its symmetry breaking. Particle candidates for cosmological dark matter are lightest particles that bear new conserved quantum numbers. Dark matter particles may represent ideal gas of noninteracting particles. Self-interacting dark matter weakly or superweakly coupled to ordinary matter is also possible, reflecting nontrivial pattern of particle symmetry in the hidden sector of particle theory. In the early universe the structure of particle symmetry breaking gives rise to cosmological phase transitions, from which macroscopic cosmological defects or primordial nonlinear structures can be originated. Primordial black holes (PBHs) can be not only a candidate for dark matter, but also represent a universal probe for superhigh energy physics in the early universe. Evaporating PBHs turn to be a source of even superweakly interacting particles, while clouds of massive PBHs can serve as nonlinear seeds for galaxy formation. The observed broken symmetry of the three known families may provide a simultaneous solution for the problems of the mass of neutrino and strong CP-violation in the unique framework of models of horizontal unification. Dark matter candidates can also appear in the new families of quarks and leptons and the existence of new stable charged leptons and quarks is possible, hidden in elusive "dark atoms." Such possibility, strongly restricted by the constraints on anomalous isotopes of light elements, is not excluded in scenarios that predict stable double charged particles. The excessive -2 charged particles are bound in these scenarios with primordial helium in O-helium "atoms," maintaining specific nuclear-interacting form of the dark matter, which may provide an interesting solution for the puzzles of the direct dark matter searches. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, studying fundamental relationship of micro- and macro-worlds, the problem of cosmological dark matter implies cross disciplinary theoretical, experimental and observational studies for its solution. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Dremin I.M.,National Research Nuclear University MEPhI
Physics-Uspekhi | Year: 2015

New proton-proton collision data from theLHC have considerably extended the energy range over which the structure of the proton-proton interaction region can be studied. In this paper, we combine the unitarity relation with experimental data on elastic scattering in the diffraction cone to show how the shape and the darkness of the inelastic interaction region of colliding protons change with increasing the proton energy. In particular, at LHC energies, small-impact-parameter collisions become fully absorptive, with some implications for inelastic processes as well. The possibility of changing from the blackcore scenario at LHC energies to the fully transparent scenario at higher energies is discussed-a phenomenon that implies changing from the black disk to black toroid terminology. As the asymptotic behavior is approached, a different regime may arise. The parameter determining the opacity of central collisions also crucially affects the differential cross section of elastic scattering outside the diffraction cone, where all phenomenological models fail for the LHC energies. It is in this region where the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the elastic scattering amplitude in nonforward scattering becomes a decisive factor, as indeed it should according to the unitarity condition. Our results make it possible for the first time to estimate this ratio outside the diffraction cone by comparing with data for LHC energies, and it turns out to be drastically different from the values measured at forward scattering. Moreover, both real and imaginary parts are found to behave differently in different phenomenological models and in the approach based on the unitarity condition. This problem is still to be resolved. All the conclusions are made solely in the framework of the indubitable unitarity condition using experimental data on elastic proton scattering in the diffraction cone, without resorting to other theoretical methods, such as quantum chromodynamics or phenomenological models. © 2015 Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk, Russian Academy of Sciences.

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