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Sarir H.,Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical science | Mortaz E.,Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical science | Mortaz E.,National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease NRITLD | Janse Willem.T.,Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical science | And 3 more authors.
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Macrophages are key inflammatory cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The pathophysiology of cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema is complex but there is a clear role for reactive oxygen species (ROS, such as peroxynitrite), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-8. We investigated whether TNF-α or cigarette smoke medium (CSM) alone or in combination induces the production of IL-8 by human macrophages or monocyte lymphoma U937. CSM and TNF-α induce a dose- and time-dependent increase in IL-8 production. Interestingly, when sub-threshold concentrations of CSM and TNF-α were co-incubated, a 1500% increase in IL-8 production was observed compared to either of the compounds alone. Similar results were obtained with TNF-α and the peroxynitrite donor SIN-1. Moreover, the overproduction of IL-8 was associated with an enhanced increase in the translocation of NF-κB and an enhanced decrease in glutathione levels. Preincubation of the cells with antioxidants, such as N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), prevented the overproduction of IL-8 and activation of NF-κB. In conclusion, CSM exposure of macrophages up-regulates the expression and the production of IL-8 via reactive oxygen species and NF-κB activation. Moreover, CSM dramatically enhances the production of IL-8 in combination with TNF-α. Based upon the strong synergistic action, a combination therapy directed against ROS and TNF-α could be a new approach to stop the progression in lung damage during emphysema. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Obeidi N.,Bushehr University of Medical Sciences | Safavi E.,Bushehr University of Medical Sciences | Emami H.,National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease NRITLD
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The complete blood count (CBC) is one of the most common tests requested by physicians. The results of this test are affected by different factors such as temperature and time of incubation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes in CBC results at room temperature (RT). In a cross-sectional study, 32 K 2EDTA (dipotassium ethylenediamine-tetraacetate)-anticoagulated blood specimens were processed for CBC testing after blood-taking and incubation for 24 h at RT. Specimens were selected from routine laboratory workload. Among the CBC parameters, there were no significant differences in WBC, Plt and Hb results before and after incubation at RT (p>0.05). However, there were significant differences in RBC, Hct, MCV, MCH and MCHC results before and after incubation (p<0.001). The findings of this study showed that some CBC parameters can change after incubation at RT. Testing should therefore be done on blood samples as soon as possible. © 2012 Academic Journals. Source


Raoufy M.R.,Tarbiat Modares University | Hajizadeh S.,Tarbiat Modares University | Hajizadeh S.,Institute for Cognitive Science Studies ICSS | Gharibzadeh S.,Amirkabir University of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Respirology | Year: 2013

Background and objective: Respiratory inductive plethysmography is a non-invasive technique for measuring respiratory function. However, there are challenges associated with using linear methods for calibration of respiratory inductive plethysmography. In this study, we developed two nonlinear models, artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, to estimate respiratory volume based on thoracoabdominal movements, and compared these models with routine linear approaches, including qualitative diagnostic calibration and multiple linear regression. Methods: Recordings of spirometry volume and respiratory inductive plethysmography were obtained for 10 normal subjects and 10 asthmatic patients, during asynchronous breathing for 7 min. The first 5 min of recording were used to develop the models; the remaining data were used for subsequent validation of the results. Results: The results from the nonlinear models fitted the spirometry volume curve significantly better than those obtained by linear methods, particularly during asynchrony (P < 0.05). On a breath-by-breath analysis, estimates of tidal volume, total cycle time and sigh values using the artificial neural network model were accurate by comparison with qualitative diagnostic calibration. In contrast to the artificial neural network model, there was a significant correlation between values for thoracoabdominal asynchrony and increased error of qualitative diagnostic calibration (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results indicate that the nonlinear methods can be adapted to closely simulate variable conditions and used to study the patterns of volume changes during normal and asynchronous breathing. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology. Source


Raoufy M.R.,Tarbiat Modares University | Raoufy M.R.,National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease NRITLD | Eftekhari P.,Tarbiat Modares University | Eftekhari P.,National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease NRITLD | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Systems | Year: 2011

Arterial blood gas (ABG) has an important role in the clinical assessment of patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Because of ABG complications, an alternative method is beneficial. We have trained and tested five artificial neural networks (ANNs) with venous blood gas (VBG) values (pH, PCO2, HCO3, PO2, and O2 saturation) as inputs, to predict ABG values in patients with AECOPD. Venous and arterial blood samples were collected from 132 patients. Using the data of 106 patients, the ANNs were trained and validated by back-propagation algorithm. Subsequently, data from the remainder 26 patients was used for testing the networks. The ability of ANNs to predict ABG values and to detect significant hypercarbia was assessed and the results were compared with a linear regression model. Our results indicate that the ANNs provide an accurate method for predicting ABG values from VBG values and detecting hypercarbia in AECOPD. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Farnia P.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Farnia P.,National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease NRITLD | Bandehpour M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Ghanavi J.,National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease NRITLD | Kazemi B.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine | Year: 2013

Soluble form of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor (sFlt-1) has been considered a key target in anti angiogenesis strategies. In this study, sFlt-1 was amplified and cloned. For recombinant production of sFlt-1 protein, Chinese hamster ovary cell line (CHO) was used. The liposome-mediated transfection with sFlt-1 gene, were detected in sFlt-1 positive cells as early as 24 hours post-transfection. The production of sFlt-1 protein was confirmed using SDS-PAGE and immune blotting results. In present investigation, the recombinant protein of sFlt-1 had expressed with correct folding. The system is economically applicable for large production of sFlt protein and can be used as further therapeutic approaches in targeting the growth of solid tumor tissue. Source

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