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Opiela J.,National Research Institute of Animal Production | Kitska-Ksiizkiewicz L.,University of Rzeszow
Reproductive Biology | Year: 2013

The present article summarizes the results of experiments investigating the Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB) staining for selection of immature oocytes before in vitro embryo production or somatic cell nuclear transfer. Developmental competence of oocytes stained with BCB and quality of blastocysts derived from such oocytes as well as the expression of apoptosis-related genes, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication-related genes and the transcripts encoded by the mitochondrial genome in BCB stained oocytes are discussed. © 2013 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn.


Tyra M.,National Research Institute of Animal Production | Ropka-Molik K.,National Research Institute of Animal Production
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

Intensive breeding programs, designed to improve lean meat content in pigs, have considerably increased the amount of meat in carcass. It was influenced on poor meat quality and decrease of intramuscular fat (IMF) content. FABP3 and LEPR genes, which are associated with fatty acid metabolism, are regarded as candidate genes for carcass fatness traits in pigs. The objective of this study was to analyze FABP3 and LEPR genes polymorphisms and expression levels and their relationship with fatness parameters and IMF content of the most valuable cuts in carcass (m. longissimus dorsi and m. semimembranosus). The results obtained showed a significantly (P < 0.001) higher level of the FABP3 transcript in ham muscle compared to loin, whereas considerably higher (P < 0.001) expression of the LEPR gene was observed in loin. The IMF level was affected by FABP3 c.103C > T and c.1811G > C polymorphisms in ham muscle (P < 0.05) and by c.103C > T polymorphism in loin (P < 0.01). In addition, c.1811G > C polymorphism was associated with individual fatness traits of the loin and carcass (P < 0.05). The fat content of whole carcass and primary cuts was positively and highly (P < 0.01) correlated with the mRNA abundance of LEPR gene. Furthermore, the expression of FABP3 gene influenced IMF levels in both studied muscles (P < 0.01). © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Arczewska-Wlosek A.,National Research Institute of Animal Production | Swiatkiewicz S.,National Research Institute of Animal Production
Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences | Year: 2012

The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the anticoccidial efficacy of supplementing feeds with herbal extract blend containing garlic (Allium sativum), sage (Salvia officinalis), echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) extracts in broiler chickens experimentally infected with 170.000 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria acervulina, E. tenella, E. maxima and E. necatrix at 12 days of age. A total of 280 Ross 308 broilers were randomly allocated into 5 groups with 7 replicates of 8 chickens per replicate. The experimental dietary treatments were formulated by supplementing the basal maize-soyabean meal diet. The experimental design allocated the groups as follows: 1. uninfected birds and an unsupplemented diet; 2. uninfected birds and the diet supplemented with the herbal extract blend at a level of 1 g/kg feed (200 mg of each herbal extract/kg); 3. infected birds and an unsupplemented diet; 4. infected birds and a diet with the addition of coccidiostat diclazuril at a level of 1 mg/kg feed; and 5. infected birds and a diet supplemented with the herbal extract blend at a level of 1 g/kg feed (200 mg of each herbal extract/kg). Throughout the 42 days of the experimental period, performance parameters, mortality, lesion score, oocyst output, and serum carotenoid concentration were recorded. Dietary supplementation with the herbal extract blend increased growth performance to the level found in the group fed the coccidiostat and in the non-challenged groups. The number of oocysts per gram of excreta did not differ significantly between the groups fed the herbal extract blend and the group receiving the coccidiostatic supplement. The herbal extract blend had no effect on mortality, lesion score, with the exception of the duodenum, or blood carotenoid concentration.


Samiec M.,National Research Institute of Animal Production | Skrzyszowska M.,National Research Institute of Animal Production
Theriogenology | Year: 2012

The present study was undertaken to investigate the preimplantation developmental competence of cloned pig embryos that were derived from fibroblast cell nuclei by different methods for the activation of reconstructed oocytes. In subgroups IA and IB, nuclear-transferred (NT) oocytes derived from either adult cutaneous or fetal fibroblast cells that had been classified as nonapoptotic by intra vitam analysis for programmed cell death using the YO-PRO-1 DNA fluorochrome underwent sequential physical (i.e., electrical) and chemical activation (SE-CA). This novel method of SE-CA, which was developed and optimized in our laboratory, involves treatment of reconstituted oocytes with direct current pulses and subsequent exposure to 7.5 μM calcium ionomycin, followed by incubation with 30 μM R roscovitine (R-RSCV), 0.7 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine and 3.5 μg/mL cycloheximide. In subgroups IIA and IIB, NT oocytes were subjected to the standard method of simultaneous fusion and activation mediated by direct current pulses. The proportion of cloned embryos in subgroup IA that reached the morula and blastocyst stages was 145/248 (58.5%) and 78/248 (31.5%), respectively. The proportions of cloned embryos in subgroup IB that reached the morula and blastocyst stages were 186/264 (70.5%) and 112/264 (42.4%), respectively. In turn, subgroup IIA yielded proportions at the morula and blastocyst stages of 110/234 (47.0%) and 49/234 (20.9%), respectively. Subgroup IIB yielded proportions at the morula and blastocyst stages of 144/243 (59.3%) and 74/243 (30.5%), respectively. In summary, the SE-CA of NT oocytes reconstructed from either type of nonapoptotic/nonnecrotic (i.e., YO-PRO-1-negative) fibroblast cell resulted in porcine cloned embryos with considerably better in vitro developmental outcomes than those of cloned embryos generated using the simultaneous fusion and activation approach. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful stimulation of porcine NT oocytes using electric pulses followed by an additional activation with a higher dose (1.5 times) of calcium ionomycin and subsequent exposure to a combination of 30 μM R-RSCV and lower concentrations (by 3 times) of 6-dimethylaminopurine and cycloheximide. Moreover, we report here the first use of R-RSCV, a novel meiosis-promoting factor-related p34cdc2 kinase inhibitor, in the oocyte activation protocol for the somatic cell cloning of pigs.© 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Niwinska B.,National Research Institute of Animal Production
Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences | Year: 2010

Recent results of biomedical studies suggest that rumenic acid (RA), the major isomer of conjugated octadecadienoic acids (CLA), appears to have beneficial health effects in humans. The major source of RA in the human diet is milk and beef fat, but average intake is too low to exhibit a health-protective effect. In light of current studies, the total amount of RA available to humans also depends on the endogenous synthesis of RA through Δ9- desaturase activity with trans-vaccenic acid (VA) as the substrate. The results of experiments suggest that the endogenous synthesis of RA has positive effects on human health. The enrichment in VA and RA of bovine fat through the diet is well documented in the literature. Current research has demonstrated that Δ9- desaturase is responsible for more than 80% of RA in milk and beef fat and that the enzyme activity is affected by non-dietary factors. This review presents the current state of knowledge about the influences of breeds, stage of lactation, type of tissues, enzyme gene polymorphisms and interactions with other genes, nutrients and hormones at tissue level on the endogenous synthesis of RA in cattle.


Szyndler-Nedza M.,National Research Institute of Animal Production
Livestock Science | Year: 2016

To date, there have been no studies determining the coefficients of heritability or repeatability for colostrum and milk composition of sows in successive lactations. In the case of sows, estimation of such coefficient of repeatability may give a preliminary indication of whether these traits can be used in the breeding and selection of pigs. The aim of the experiment was to make preliminary estimates of the coefficients of repeatability for the content of the Polish Large White (PLW) and Polish Landrace (PL) sow colostrum and milk components over three consecutive lactations. Subjects were 72 sows of the PLW (30 sows) and PL breeds (42 sows). During three consecutive lactations, samples of colostrum and milk on day 14 of lactation were collected from the first, third and sixth teats of the sows (each sample from teats 1, 3 and 6 totalled 50 ml in volume). In total, 432 samples of colostrum and milk were collected from sows of the two breeds. The samples were analysed for fat, crude protein, lactose, solids, and non-protein solids. Summarizing the results, it is concluded that the highest coefficient of repeatability was estimated for colostrum lactose and solids content over two consecutive lactations: second and third (r=0.3). Also in the milk of second- and third-lactation sows, the lactose content was characterized by the highest coefficient of repeatability (r=0.18). Considering the three consecutive lactations, it was found that colostrum produced by the sows had a consistent content of lactose (r=0.18) as well as solids (r=0.17) and protein (r=0.16). Therefore, it can be stated that the lactose content of sow colostrum in the first lactation could be indicative of a female's predisposition to produce colostrum and milk with similar lactose content over two consecutive lactations. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Calik J.,National Research Institute of Animal Production
Annals of Animal Science | Year: 2014

Over the last decade, there has been an increased consumer interest in niche food products with special aroma and flavour, and rich in nutrients. Poland has a large (19 lines) and valuable collection of laying hens enrolled in the genetic resources conservation programme. Research to date has shown these hen breeds to vary in phenotype, productivity, and biological quality of hatching eggs and meat. A significant problem in using hens for both egg and meat production is that the number of unwanted cockerels increases with increasing intensity of egg production. This problem can be overcome by castration of cockerels. Roosters were sterilized long before Christ, first as a religious ritual and then to increase the body weight of birds. The qualities of capon meat were noticed much later when it turned out to be more delicate, juicy and tender compared to rooster meat. The aim of this paper was to review the literature on capon production, including the effects of castration on the bird's body and on the quality of meat obtained. © 2014 by Jolanta Calik.


Gogol P.,National Research Institute of Animal Production
Folia Biologica (Poland) | Year: 2013

The effect of semen storage duration on motility parameters and ATP content of rabbit spermatozoa were investigated. Ejaculates were collected from 9 New Zealand White male rabbits and diluted with a commercial rabbit semen extender Galap. Semen was stored at 15°C for 3 days. On each day of storage sperm motility and intracellular ATP content were evaluated. Sperm motility parameters were assessed using the computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system and ATP content using the bioluminescence method. The time of storage had a significant effect on sperm motility parameters (except straight-line velocity) and ATP content. A significant correlation was observed between motility parameters and spermATP content. Themotility parametersmost strongly correlated with ATP content were total motile spermatozoa (r = 0.6364), progressively motile spermatozoa (r = 0.529), amplitude of lateral head displacement (r = 0.4178), curvilinear velocity (r = 0.4111) and average path velocity (r = 0.3743). Results show that motility parameters determined using the CASA system and intracellular ATP content are sensitive indicators of sperm quality during in vitro storage and may be useful for estimation of in vivo fertilizing ability of rabbit semen. © Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, PAS, Kraków, 2013.


Szczurek W.,National Research Institute of Animal Production
Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences | Year: 2010

The experiment was conducted to assess the ileal digestibility values for the purpose of evaluating the ability of 14-day-old broilers to utilize the amino acids (AA) from different plant feeds. The feeds included two cereals: maize and wheat; full-fat seeds of rape (FRS); four local by-product: cold-pressed rapeseed cake (RC1), rapeseed cake from precooked (90°C) seeds (RC2), solvent-extracted rapeseed meal (RSM), maize distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and soyabean meal (SBM), used as the model protein feed. The standardized ileal digestibilities of AA (SID) were measured using the assay diets containing Cr2O3 as an indigestible marker. A protein-free diet was formulated to estimate the basal ileal endogenous AA losses. Dietary protein in the assay diets was supplied solely by the test ingredients. Each diet was offered for 5 days to 4 replicate cages of 12 birds. For wheat the SID coefficients of most AA were significantly or numerically greater compared with maize. The numerical superiority of the SBM over all the other protein sources tested was found for SID of most AA, with statistically confirmed differences for threonine, tryptophan, serine and tyrosine. Among protein feeds examined DDGS had the lowest digestibility of lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan and cystine. Of the four rapeseed feeds, RSM had the lowest digestibility of lysine, histidine, alanine, glycine and serine. Considering the SID of the 18 amino acids, protein-rich feeds tested in this study were ranked as follows: SBM > RC1 > RC2> FRS > RSM> DDGS. However, the SID values of lysine and methionine in both rapeseed cakes (RC1 and RC2) were comparable to those obtained for SBM.


Ropka-Molik K.,National Research Institute of Animal Production | Eckert R.,National Research Institute of Animal Production | Piorkowska K.,National Research Institute of Animal Production
Gene Expression Patterns | Year: 2011

The MyoD, Myf6 genes, which belong to the family of muscle regulatory factors (MRFs) play a major role in muscle growth and development. Therefore, they are considered as candidate genes for meat production traits in pigs. These basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors regulate myogenesis: they initiate the formation of muscle fibres and regulate the transcription of muscle specific genes. The paired-box transcription factor Pax7 plays critical roles during fetal development and this protein is essential for renewal and maintenance of muscle stem cells. In particular, expression of Pax7 and MyoD is correlated with presence of active satellite cells, important in hyperplastic and hypertrophic growth in skeletal muscle. The objective of the study was to investigate the level of expression of MyoD, Myf6 and Pax7 genes in porcine skeletal muscles (m. semimembranosus, m. biceps femoris, m. gracilis) in breeds differing in muscularity. Moreover, we investigated expression profile of these genes during ontogenesis in Polish Large White (PLW) and Pietrain pigs in the largest ham muscle (m. semimembranosus). Analysis of several ham muscles showed higher expression of MyoD in the Polish Landrace (PL) breed than in Pietrain and PLW pigs (m. semimembranosus P < 0.001; m. biceps femoris P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively; m. gracilis P < 0.01). The level of Pax7 transcript depended on type of muscle and breed. The highest expression was in m. gracilis in Pietrain and the lowest in Polish Landrace. Our results indicate that MyoD and Pax7 genes had higher expression levels in the early stages of development in both investigated breeds. The total expression profile of MyoD and Pax7 genes suggests that higher muscularity in Pietrain pigs is associated with the presence of a greater number of active satellite stem cells compared to other breeds. The expression level of Myf6 gene does not indicate significant differences between muscles, ages and breeds. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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