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Gyongy M.,Pazmany Peter Catholic University | Balogh L.,National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene | Szalai K.,Semmelweis University | Kallo I.,Pazmany Peter Catholic University | Kallo I.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2013

Simulations of ultrasound (US) images based on histology may shed light on the process by which microscopic tissue features translate to a US image and may enable predictions of feature detectability as a function of US system parameters. This technical note describes how whole-slide hematoxylin and eosin-stained histology images can be used to generate maps of fractional change in bulk modulus, whose convolution with the impulse response of the US system yields simulated US images. The method is illustrated by two canine mastocytoma histology images, one with and the other without signs of intra-operative hemorrhaging. Quantitative comparisons of the envelope statistics with corresponding clinical US images provide preliminary validation of the method. © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Source

Tisza V.,Szent Istvan University | Tisza V.,Agricultural Biotechnology Center | Kovacs L.,Szent Istvan University | Balogh A.,National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene | And 2 more authors.
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

The involvement of basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors in essential physiological and developmental processes is well established. Although a lot of animal bHLH proteins were characterized functionally, much less bHLHs of plant origin have been studied so far. Using a cDNA-AFLP approach, a ripening-related SPATULA gene was identified from strawberry fruit (Fragaria× ananassa Duch.), which encodes a bHLH protein. It is an orthologue of an Arabidopsis SPATULA protein, which has an important role in carpel and fruit development. Our experiments revealed that FaSPT is repressed by auxin in green fruits, and shows different expression patterns in receptacles at various stages of fruit ripening by ethylene treatment. Moreover, we applied a reverse genetic tool to elucidate the in planta function of FaSPT in early fruit development. To our knowledge, this work is the first report for the characterization of a SPATULA gene from a non-climacteric fruit. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Gajsek P.,Institute of Non ionizing Radiation INIS | Ravazzani P.,CNR Institute of Biomedical Engineering | Wiart J.,Orange S.A. | Grellier J.,CIBER ISCIII | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology | Year: 2015

Average levels of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of the general public in Europe are difficult to summarize, as exposure levels have been reported differently in those studies in which they have been measured, and a large proportion of reported measurements were very low, sometimes falling below detection limits of the equipment used. The goal of this paper is to present an overview of the scientific literature on RF EMF exposure in Europe and to characterize exposure within the European population. A comparative analysis of the results of spot or long-term RF EMF measurements in the EU indicated that mean electric field strengths were between 0.08 V/m and 1.8 V/m. The overwhelming majority of measured mean electric field strengths were <1 V/m. It is estimated that <1% were above 6 V/m and <0.1% were above 20 V/m. No exposure levels exceeding European Council recommendations were identified in these surveys. Most population exposures from signals of radio and television broadcast towers were observed to be weak because these transmitters are usually far away from exposed individuals and are spatially sparsely distributed. On the other hand, the contribution made to RF exposure from wireless telecommunications technology is continuously increasing and its contribution was above 60% of the total exposure. According to the European exposure assessment studies identified, three population exposure categories (intermittent variable partial body exposure, intermittent variable low-level whole-body (WB) exposure and continuous low-level WB exposure) were recognized by the authors as informative for possible future risk assessment. © 2015 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Szabo Z.,Lithosphere Fluid Research Laboratory | Szabo Z.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Jordan G.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Szabo C.,Lithosphere Fluid Research Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies | Year: 2014

Radon and thoron isotopes are responsible for approximately half of the average annual effective dose to humans. Although the half-life of thoron is short, it can potentially enter indoor air from adobe walls. Adobe was a traditional construction material in the Great Hungarian Plain. Its major raw materials are the alluvial sediments of the area. Here, seasonal radon and thoron activity concentrations were measured in 53 adobe dwellings in 7 settlements by pairs of etched track detectors. The results show that the annual average radon and thoron activity concentrations are elevated in these dwellings and that the proportions with values higher than 300 Bq m-3 are 14-17 and 29-32% for radon and thoron, respectively. The calculated radon inhalation dose is significantly higher than the world average value, exceeding 10 mSv y-1 in 7% of the dwellings of this study. Thoron also can be a significant contributor to the inhalation dose with about 30% in the total inhalation dose. The changes of weather conditions seem to be more relevant in the variation of measurement results than the differences in the local sedimentary geology. Still, the highest values were detected on clay. Through the year, radon follows the average temperature changes and is affected by the ventilation, whereas thoron rather seems to follow the amount of precipitation. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source

Hofman D.,Consultant | Monte L.,ENEA | Boyer P.,Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety | Brittain J.,University of Oslo | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2011

Assessment of the environmental and radiological consequences of a nuclear accident requires the management of a great deal of data and information as well as the use of predictive models. Computerised Decision Support Systems (CDSS) are essential tools for this kind of complex assessment and for assisting experts with a rational decision process. The present work focuses on the assessment of the main features of selected state-of-the-art CDSS for off-site management of freshwater ecosystems contaminated by radionuclides. This study involved both developers and end-users of the assessed CDSS and was based on practical customisation exercises, installation and application of the decision systems. Potential end-users can benefit from the availability of several ready-to-use CDSS that allow one to run different kinds of models aimed at predicting the behaviour of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems, evaluating doses to humans, assessing the effectiveness of different kinds of environmental management interventions and ranking these interventions, accounting for their social, economic and environmental impacts. As a result of the present assessment, the importance of CDSS " integration" became apparent: in many circumstances, different CDSS can be used as complementary tools for the decision-making process. The results of this assessment can also be useful for the future development and improvement of the CDSS. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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