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Gyongy M.,Pázmány Péter Catholic University | Balogh L.,National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene | Szalai K.,Semmelweis University | Kallo I.,Pázmány Péter Catholic University | Kallo I.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2013

Simulations of ultrasound (US) images based on histology may shed light on the process by which microscopic tissue features translate to a US image and may enable predictions of feature detectability as a function of US system parameters. This technical note describes how whole-slide hematoxylin and eosin-stained histology images can be used to generate maps of fractional change in bulk modulus, whose convolution with the impulse response of the US system yields simulated US images. The method is illustrated by two canine mastocytoma histology images, one with and the other without signs of intra-operative hemorrhaging. Quantitative comparisons of the envelope statistics with corresponding clinical US images provide preliminary validation of the method. © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.


Gajsek P.,Institute of Non Ionizing Radiation INIS | Ravazzani P.,CNR Institute of Biomedical Engineering | Wiart J.,Orange S.A. | Grellier J.,CIBER ISCIII | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology | Year: 2015

Average levels of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of the general public in Europe are difficult to summarize, as exposure levels have been reported differently in those studies in which they have been measured, and a large proportion of reported measurements were very low, sometimes falling below detection limits of the equipment used. The goal of this paper is to present an overview of the scientific literature on RF EMF exposure in Europe and to characterize exposure within the European population. A comparative analysis of the results of spot or long-term RF EMF measurements in the EU indicated that mean electric field strengths were between 0.08 V/m and 1.8 V/m. The overwhelming majority of measured mean electric field strengths were <1 V/m. It is estimated that <1% were above 6 V/m and <0.1% were above 20 V/m. No exposure levels exceeding European Council recommendations were identified in these surveys. Most population exposures from signals of radio and television broadcast towers were observed to be weak because these transmitters are usually far away from exposed individuals and are spatially sparsely distributed. On the other hand, the contribution made to RF exposure from wireless telecommunications technology is continuously increasing and its contribution was above 60% of the total exposure. According to the European exposure assessment studies identified, three population exposure categories (intermittent variable partial body exposure, intermittent variable low-level whole-body (WB) exposure and continuous low-level WB exposure) were recognized by the authors as informative for possible future risk assessment. © 2015 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Tisza V.,Szent Istvan University | Tisza V.,Agricultural Biotechnology Center | Kovacs L.,Szent Istvan University | Balogh A.,National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene | And 2 more authors.
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

The involvement of basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors in essential physiological and developmental processes is well established. Although a lot of animal bHLH proteins were characterized functionally, much less bHLHs of plant origin have been studied so far. Using a cDNA-AFLP approach, a ripening-related SPATULA gene was identified from strawberry fruit (Fragaria× ananassa Duch.), which encodes a bHLH protein. It is an orthologue of an Arabidopsis SPATULA protein, which has an important role in carpel and fruit development. Our experiments revealed that FaSPT is repressed by auxin in green fruits, and shows different expression patterns in receptacles at various stages of fruit ripening by ethylene treatment. Moreover, we applied a reverse genetic tool to elucidate the in planta function of FaSPT in early fruit development. To our knowledge, this work is the first report for the characterization of a SPATULA gene from a non-climacteric fruit. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Gajsek P.,Institute of Non Ionizing Radiation INIS | Ravazzani P.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Grellier J.,University of Exeter | Grellier J.,Formerly Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2016

We aimed to review the findings of exposure assessment studies done in European countries on the exposure of the general public to low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of various frequencies. The study shows that outdoor average extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) in public areas in urban environments range between 0.05 and 0.2 µT in terms of flux densities, but stronger values (of the order of a few µT) may occur directly beneath high-voltage power lines, at the walls of transformer buildings, and at the boundary fences of substations. In the indoor environment, high values have been measured close to several domestic appliances (up to the mT range), some of which are held close to the body, e.g., hair dryers, electric shavers. Common sources of exposure to intermediate frequencies (IF) include induction cookers, compact fluorescent lamps, inductive charging systems for electric cars and security or anti-theft devices. No systematic measurement surveys or personal exposimetry data for the IF range have been carried out and only a few reports on measurements of EMFs around such devices are mentioned. According to the available European exposure assessment studies, three population exposure categories were classified by the authors regarding the possible future risk analysis. This classification should be considered a crucial advancement for exposure assessment, which is a mandatory step in any future health risk assessment of EMFs exposure. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Joseph W.,Ghent University | Frei P.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Frei P.,University of Basel | Roosli M.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | And 12 more authors.
Bioelectromagnetics | Year: 2012

In five countries (Belgium, Switzerland, Slovenia, Hungary, and the Netherlands), personal radio frequency electromagnetic field measurements were performed in different microenvironments such as homes, public transports, or outdoors using the same exposure meters. From the mean personal field exposure levels (excluding mobile phone exposure), whole-body absorption values in a 1-year-old child and adult male model were calculated using a statistical multipath exposure method and compared for the five countries. All mean absorptions (maximal total absorption of 3.4μW/kg for the child and 1.8μW/kg for the adult) were well below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) basic restriction of 0.08W/kg for the general public. Generally, incident field exposure levels were well correlated with whole-body absorptions (SAR wb), although the type of microenvironment, frequency of the signals, and dimensions of the considered phantom modify the relationship between these exposure measures. Exposure to the television and Digital Audio Broadcasting band caused relatively higher SAR wb values (up to 65%) for the 1-year-old child than signals at higher frequencies due to the body size-dependent absorption rates. Frequency Modulation (FM) caused relatively higher absorptions (up to 80%) in the adult male. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Joseph W.,Ghent University | Frei P.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Frei P.,University of Basel | Roosli M.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | And 12 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2010

Background: Only limited data are available on personal radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in everyday life. Several European countries performed measurement studies in this area of research. However, a comparison between countries regarding typical exposure levels is lacking. Objectives: To compare for the first time mean exposure levels and contributions of different sources in specific environments between different European countries. Methods: In five countries (Belgium, Switzerland, Slovenia, Hungary, and the Netherlands), measurement studies were performed using the same personal exposure meters. The pooled data were analyzed using the robust regression on order statistics (ROS) method in order to allow for data below the detection limit. Mean exposure levels were compared between different microenvironments such as homes, public transports, or outdoor. Results: Exposure levels were of the same order of magnitude in all countries and well below the international exposure limits. In all countries except for the Netherlands, the highest total exposure was measured in transport vehicles (trains, car, and busses), mainly due to radiation from mobile phone handsets (up to 97%). Exposure levels were in general lower in private houses or flats than in offices and outdoors. At home, contributions from various sources were quite different between countries. Conclusions: Highest total personal RF-EMF exposure was measured inside transport vehicles and was well below international exposure limits. This is mainly due to mobile phone handsets. Mobile telecommunication can be considered to be the main contribution to total RF-EMF exposure in all microenvironments. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, INERIS and University Pierre and Marie Curie
Type: Controlled Clinical Trial | Journal: Journal of neurophysiology | Year: 2015

The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of the radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human resting EEG with a control of some parameters that are known to affect alpha band, such as electrode impedance, salivary cortisol, and caffeine. Eyes-open and eyes-closed resting EEG data were recorded in 26 healthy young subjects under two conditions: sham exposure and real exposure in double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design. Spectral power of EEG rhythms was calculated for the alpha band (8-12 Hz). Saliva samples were collected before and after the study. Salivary cortisol and caffeine were assessed by ELISA and HPLC, respectively. The electrode impedance was recorded at the beginning of each run. Compared with the sham session, the exposure session showed a statistically significant (P < 0.0001) decrease of the alpha band spectral power during closed-eyes condition. This effect persisted in the postexposure session (P < 0.0001). No significant changes were detected in electrode impedance, salivary cortisol, and caffeine in the sham session compared with the exposure one. These results suggest that GSM-EMFs of a mobile phone affect the alpha band within spectral power of resting human EEG.


Juhasz P.,National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene | Bakos J.,National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene | Nagy N.,National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene | Janossy G.,National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene | And 2 more authors.
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

Personal RF exposimetry has been in the focus of the bioelectromagnetics community in the last few years. With a few exceptions, exposimetry studies focused on adults, because measuring the exposure of children, one of the most important target groups, introduces many complications.The main feature of our study is to select teachers and kindergarten caretakers as volunteers. They are expected to receive similar exposure patterns as the children because they spend the workday close to them. Thus they can stand as proxies for estimation of exposures of children.Volunteers belonging to one of two groups (elementary school teachers, n= 31; employees of kindergartens and day nurseries, n= 50) in Hungarian cities received a Personal Exposimeter (PEM) for 24. h each. Only workdays, when the volunteers worked near children, were considered. 51 additional volunteers (office workers) were measured as controls.The volunteers wore the PEMs on their bodies. Those activities marked in the exposure diaries as work were further classified into 5 categories based on the level of certainty that they actually worked near children during that activity. Subsets of the full dataset were derived and compared based on this categorization.It was found that relaxation of the selection criteria often under- or overestimates exposure. The differences of estimation depend on the frequency band and sub-population: the kindergarten and teacher groups differ in this regard. For most frequency bands the majority of data points was below the detection limit. Derived child exposures are comparable to the worktime exposure of adults (control group). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Szabo G.,National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene | Guczi J.,National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene | Reiller P.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Miyajima T.,Saga University | Bulman R.A.,Public Health England
Radiochimica Acta | Year: 2010

Successful geochemical modelling of the migration of radioactive materials, such as the transuranic elements, from nuclear waste repositories is dependent upon an understanding of their interaction with biogeopolymers such as humic acids, the most likely complexing agents in groundwaters. An established silica/humic acid composite has been evaluated as a model substrate for naturally occurring humate- coated minerals that are likely to be present in the vicinity of the repositories. The binding of Pu(IV), the highly likely oxidation station, by the silica/humic substrate was examined at pH4 in the range 0.02 to 3.00 M NaClO4 by the titration method. Pu(IV)-humate conditional stability constants have been evaluated from data obtained from these experiments by using non-linear regression of binding isotherms. The results have been interpreted in terms of complexes of 1 : 1 stoichiometry. Analysis of the complex formation dependency with ionic strength shows that the effect of ionic strength on humate complexation of Pu(IV) is not dramatically pronounced. The complexation constants are evaluated for the humate interaction with Pu4+ and Pu(OH)3+ at pH 4. The complexation constants are found, respectively, to be log HA/β(Pu4+) = 16.6 ± 0.3 and log β01.3. =46.6 ± 2.3. The estimations through analogy from previous results are in agreement with these new experimental data. © by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, München.


Dezso K.,Semmelweis University | Papp V.,Semmelweis University | Bugyik E.,Semmelweis University | Hegyesi H.,National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene | And 4 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2012

We have analyzed the architectural aspects of progenitor-cell-driven regenerative growth in rat liver by applying the 2-acetaminofluorene/partial hepatectomy experimental model. The regeneration is initiated by the proliferation of so-called oval cells. The oval cells at the proximal tips of the ductules have a more differentiated phenotype and higher proliferative rate. This preferential growth results in the formation of a seemingly random collection of small hepatocytes, called foci. These foci have no clonal origin, but possess a highly organized structure, which shows similarities to normal hepatic parenchyma. Therefore, they can easily remodel into the lobular structure. Eventually, the regenerated liver is constructed by enlarged hepatic lobules; no new lobules are formed during this process. The foci of the Solt-Farber experimental hepatocarcinogenesis model have identical morphological features; accordingly, they also represent only regenerative, not neoplastic, growth. Conclusion: Progenitor-cell-driven liver regeneration is a well-designed, highly organized tissue reaction, and better comprehension of the architectural events may help us to recognize this process and understand its role in physiological and pathological reactions. © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

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