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Serafini M.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Research | Morabito G.,Food and Nutrition Unit
International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research | Year: 2012

Dietary polyphenols have been shown to scavenge free radicals, modulating cellular redox transcription factors in different in vitro and ex vivo models. Dietary intervention studies have shown that consumption of plant foods modulates plasma Non-Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity (NEAC), a biomarker of the endogenous antioxidant network, in human subjects. However, the identification of the molecules responsible for this effect are yet to be obtained and evidences of an antioxidant in vivo action of polyphenols are confl icting. There is a clear discrepancy between polyphenols (PP) concentration in body fl uids and the extent of increase of plasma NEAC. The low degree of absorption and the extensive metabolism of PP within the body have raised questions about their contribution to the endogenous antioxidant network. This work will discuss the role of polyphenols from galenic preparation, food extracts, and selected dietary sources as modulators of plasma NEAC in humans. ©2012 Hans Huber Publishers, Hogrefe AG, Bern.

Hallstrom L.,Malardalen University | Hallstrom L.,Karolinska Institutet | Vereecken C.A.,Ghent University | Ruiz J.R.,Karolinska Institutet | And 15 more authors.
Appetite | Year: 2011

Breakfast consumption has been shown to be an important indicator of a healthy lifestyle. Little is known however about factors influencing breakfast consumption and food choices at breakfast in adolescents. The aim of the present study was therefore to describe breakfast habits, and factors influencing food choices at breakfast within the framework of the EU-funded HELENA Study, in 3528 adolescents from ten European cities. Additionally, socio-demographic differences in breakfast habits and in influencing factors were investigated. Half of the adolescents (and fewer girls than boys) indicated being regular breakfast consumers. Girls with mothers with a high level of education, boys from 'traditional' families and boys who perceived low family affluence were positively associated with breakfast consumption. Boys whose parents gave encouragement and girls whose peers ate healthily were more likely to be regular breakfast consumers. 'Hunger', 'taste', 'health concerns' and 'parents or guardian' were the most important influences on the adolescents' food choices at breakfast. Adolescents from southern Europe and girls reported to be more influenced by personal and socio-environmental factors. Socio-demographic differences, in particular regional and gender differences, need to be considered in discussions surrounding the development of nutritional intervention programs intended for adolescents. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Koutelidakis A.E.,Agricultural University of Athens | Serafini M.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Research | Komaitis M.,Agricultural University of Athens | Kapsokefalou M.,Agricultural University of Athens
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

We tested in mice the hypothesis that iron fortificants may exert oxidative activity on colon tissue homogenates (CTH), depending on the antioxidant capacity of infusions received with their diet. CTH were obtained from mice receiving daily by gavage 0.1 mL of infusion (8 g/100 mL water) from green tea or white tea or Pelargonium purpureum or catechin (0.01 g/100 mL) or water (control) for five days. All CTH had higher total antioxidant capacity than the control and lower susceptibility to oxidation induced by the retentates of in vitro digests of ferrous lactate, ferrous gluconate, ferrous sulfate and NaFeEDTA. Ferrous sulfate and NaFeEDTA exhibited higher oxidative effect on CTH than ferrous gluconate or ferrous lactate. These results are in support of our hypothesis and suggest that infusions received with diet may protect the colon from a potential oxidative effect of non-absorbed iron. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

Seamans K.M.,University College Cork | Hill T.R.,University College Cork | Scully L.,University College Cork | Andrillo-Sanchez M.,Joseph Fourier University | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Background/Objectives:Data from human studies that have investigated the association between vitamin D status and cognitive function in elderly adults are conflicting. The objective of this study was to assess vitamin D status (reflected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)) in older European subjects (n387; aged 55-87 years) and examine its association with measures of cognitive function.Subjects/Methods:Serum 25(OH)D was assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas measures of cognitive function were assessed using a comprehensive Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB).Results:In all, 12, 36 and 64% of subjects had serum 25(OH)D concentrations 30, 50 and 80 nmol/l, respectively, throughout the year. Serum 25(OH)D was significantly and inversely correlated with four assessments within the spatial working memory (SWM) test parameter (SWM between errors (r0.166; P0.003); SWM between errors 8 boxes (r0.134; P0.038); SWM strategy (r0.246; P0.0001); and SWM total errors (r0.174; P0.003)). When subjects were stratified on the basis of tertiles (T) of serum 25(OH)D (47.6 (T 1); 47.6-85.8 (T 2); and 85.8 (T 3) nmol/l), fewer errors in SWM test scores occurred in subjects in the third T when compared with the first T (P0.05-0.084). Stratification by sex showed that these differences between tertiles strengthened (P0.001-0.043) in the females, but the differences were not significant (P0.6) in males.Conclusions:Vitamin D insufficiency, but not deficiency, is widespread in the older population of several European countries. Low vitamin D status was associated with a reduced capacity for SWM, particularly in women. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Zamora-Ros R.,University of Barcelona | Zamora-Ros R.,Catalan Institute of Oncology ICO IDIBELL | Serafini M.,National Institute for Food and Nutrition Research | Estruch R.,CIBER ISCIII | And 14 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2013

Background and aims: The intake of antioxidant-rich foods may increase the blood levels of non enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC). NEAC takes into account all antioxidants from food and synergistic effects between them. We examined the effect of a 1-year intervention with Mediterranean diet on plasma NEAC and assessed whether it was related to baseline NEAC levels. Methods and results: Five hundred sixty-four participants at high cardiovascular risk were randomly selected from the PREDIMED (Prevención con DIeta MEDiterránea) Study, a large 3-arm randomized clinical trial. Blood NEAC levels were measured at baseline and after 1-year of dietary intervention with 1) a Mediterranean diet supplemented with virgin olive oil (MED+VOO); 2) a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts (MED+nuts), or 3) a control low-fat diet. Plasma NEAC was analyzed using FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potential) and TRAP (total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter) assays. Plasma FRAP levels increased after 1-year of intervention with MED+VOO [72.0μmol/L (95% CI, 34.2-109.9)] and MED+nuts [48.9μmol/L (24.3-73.5)], but not after the control low-fat diet [13.9μmol/L (-11.9 to 39.8)]. Participants in the lowest quartile of plasma FRAP at baseline significantly increased their levels after any intervention, while those in the highest quartile decreased. Similar results occurred with TRAP levels. Conclusions: This study shows that a 1-year of MED diet intervention increases plasma TAC level in subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the effectiveness of dietary supplementation with antioxidants may be related to baseline levels of plasma NEAC. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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