National Research Institute for Ayurvedic Drug Development

Kolkata, India

National Research Institute for Ayurvedic Drug Development

Kolkata, India
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Bose M.,University of Calcutta | Chakraborty M.,University of Calcutta | Bhattacharya S.,University of Calcutta | Mukherjee D.,University of Calcutta | And 2 more authors.
Phytotherapy Research | Year: 2014

Karanjin, the furanoflavonoid reported to possess gastroprotective and anti-diabetic properties, was investigated against experimental arthritis and its molecular signalling in inflammation was explored in macrophages. Karanjin was isolated from hexane extract of Pongamia pinnata seeds and was evaluated on arthritis markers in adjuvant induced arthritis model (AIA) in two doses (per oral; 10-mg/kg/day and 20-mg/kg/day). Karanjin dose dependently reduced collagen and cartilage breakdown markers viz. urinary hydroxyproline and glucosamine, respectively, serum lysosomal enzymes responsible for articular cartilage damage, and major proinflammatory cytokine TNFα, secreted by macrophages involved in articular inflammation and destruction. Karanjin also prevented joint damage as evidenced from arthritis score, radiographic and histopathological analysis. To delineate the molecular target of Karanjin, in vitro study on LPS induced macrophages were performed at calibrated non toxic doses (4-μg/mL and 6-μg/mL). Karanjin reduced TNFα production and also showed potent inhibitory effect on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production which is generally induced by TNFα from activated macrophages. NF-κB, the key regulator of TNFα signalling during inflammation was significantly suppressed by Karanjin. Our study for the first time highlights the anti-inflammatory role of Karanjin in experimental arthritis model as well as on macrophage signalling, thereby depicting its probable mechanism of action. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Rungsung W.,National Research Institute for Ayurvedic Drug Development | Dutta S.,National Research Institute for Ayurvedic Drug Development | Mondal D.N.,National Research Institute for Ayurvedic Drug Development | Ratha K.K.,National Research Institute for Ayurvedic Drug Development | Hazra J.,National Research Institute for Ayurvedic Drug Development
International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research | Year: 2014

Each medicinal plant and the specific plant part used as crude drug material contain active or major chemical constituents with a characteristic profile that can be used for chemical quality control and quality assurance. So the increasing demand for herbal medicines has inevitably led to maintaining the quality and purity of herbal raw materials and finished products. WHO acknowledged that Pharmacognostical standards should be proposed as a protocol for the authentication and quality assurance of herbal drugs. The important histological features of Rauwolfia serpentina are the cork, composed of alternating layers of broad and narrow cells giving a somewhat spongy and friable exterior to the drug; secondary cortex composed of several rows of parenchymatous cells, filled with starch grains and brown resin masses; secondary xylem consisting of vessels, tracheids, xylem parenchyma and wood fibres traversed by xylem rays, and showing annual rings; secondary phloem consisting of sieve cells, companion cells and parenchymatous cells containing starch grains, rosette and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate and occasionally some brown resin masses. © 2014, International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. All rights reserved.


Ghosh A.,University of Calcutta | Mandal S.,National Research Institute for Ayurvedic Drug Development | Banerji A.,University of Calcutta | Kar M.,Nilratan Sarkar Medical College | And 2 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2011

The root bark of Pongamia pinnata Pierre (syn P. glabra Vent.) has afforded a new biflavonyloxymethane, pongabiflavone, along with a known furanoflavone, 3-methoxy-(7, 8, 2″, 3″) furanoflavone. The structure of this new compound was elucidated from extensive spectral studies, including 2D-NMR spectroscopic experiments. The antioxidant, radical quenching activity- superoxide and nitric oxide quenching activities of both pongabiflavone and previously isolated karanjabiflavone have been evaluated which can be a key to cure Psoriasis.


Dixit D.,Devi Ahilya University | Dixit A.K.,National Research Institute for Ayurvedic Drug Development | Lad H.,Devi Ahilya University | Gupta D.,Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences | Bhatnagar D.,Devi Ahilya University
Biomedicine and Aging Pathology | Year: 2013

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective effect of Terminalia chebula Retzius extract against γ-irradiation-induced oxidative stress in rats. Major phenolic compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids and triterpenoids contents of Terminalia chebula extract (TCE) were measured. Potential antioxidant activity of TCE was tested by free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) using 1,1,2,2-diphenyl-p-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), total antioxidant power (TAP) using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), metal chelating activity (MCA) and inhibition of DNA damage of plasmid (pBR322). In vitro studies showed that TCE possesses potential antioxidant activity and protected plasmid DNA against breakage induced by Fenton reactants. Endogenous spleen colony forming unit (CFU) assay, DNA damage using rat peripheral blood by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) and intestinal histopathological studies in rats were performed in order to find the radioprotective effect of TCE. Animals were divided into various groups and pretreated with TCE (80 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) for 5 days prior to whole body γ-irradiation. The results showed that TCE administration prior to γ-irradiation significantly enhanced the CFU counts, reduced radiation-induced cellular DNA damage and gastrointestinal cell death. The results suggested that TCE is able to protect from γ-irradiation-induced oxidative stress and may considered as probable radioprotector. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Bose M.,University of Calcutta | Chakraborty M.,University of Calcutta | Bhattacharya S.,University of Calcutta | Bhattacharjee P.,University of Calcutta | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Immunotoxicology | Year: 2014

Pongamia pinnata is a plant known for its therapeutic usage in Indian traditional medicine. Despite the controversy regarding toxic flavonoid and erucic acid content, the seed of this plant is consumed in tribal medicine and its oil is used in Ayurveda to treat psoriasis and arthritis. This study explored the potential anti-arthritic effects of a P. pinnata seed (hexane) extract (PSE) at non-lethal doses in an adjuvant-induced arthritic rat model; possible mechanisms of any observed effects were also explored. After establishing the lethal doses arising from oral exposure to the extract, the material was administered per os daily at two doses (0.3g/kg/day; 0.5g/kg/day) to arthritic rats. Other rats received indomethacin or vehicle (control). Treatments were performed for a total of 14 days. One day after the final exposure, the rats were euthanized to permit harvest of various cells, blood, and tissues for analyses. Paw diameter and tissue myeloperoxidase activity in the paws were evaluated as indices for edema and neutrophil infiltration into the tissue. The severity of arthritis in the experimental rats was assessed via measures of urinary hydroxyproline (HP) and glucosamine, and of serum pro-inflammatory TNFα and anti-inflammatory IL-10. The extent of NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation in peritoneal macrophages harvested from naïve rats and then treated in vitro was also assessed. The results indicated that exposure to PSE significantly decreased paw diameter, tissue myeloperoxidase level, and levels of urinary HP and glucosamine, as well as of serum TNFα and IL-10 in adjuvant-injected (arthritic) rats. In vitro PSE treatment also resulted in a marked inhibition of NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation in primary cultures of peritoneal macrophages. Thus, PSE appears to be able to prevent experimental arthritis, in part, by helping to maintain the balance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines and by inhibiting NF-κB activation. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved.


Ghosh A.,University of Calcutta | Mandal S.,National Research Institute for Ayurvedic Drug Development | Banerji A.,University of Calcutta | Banerji J.,University of Calcutta
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2010

The root bark of Pongamia pinnata Pierre Syn Pongamia glabra (Family: Fabaceae) has afforded a new biflavonyloxymethane, karanjabiflavone, along with a known furanoflavone, pongapin. The structure of this new biflavonyloxymethane was elucidated from extensive spectral studies including 2D-NMR experiments. Both of these compounds possess antioxidant activity.


Pal D.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Sur S.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Mandal S.,National Research Institute for Ayurvedic Drug Development | Das A.,National Research Institute for Ayurvedic Drug Development | And 3 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2012

Amarogentin, a secoiridoid glycoside, is an active component of the medicinal plant Swertia chirata. In this study, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic actions of amarogentin were evaluated in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)/N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced liver carcinogenesis mouse model system during continuous and posttreatment schedule. Better survival, no toxicity and increased body weight were noted in amarogentin-treated mice. Reduction in proliferation and increase in apoptosis frequency were evident in amarogentin-treated groups. In carcinogen control group moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia and hepatocellular carcinoma were evident at 10th, 20th and 30th week, respectively. Amarogentin was found to prevent progression of liver carcinogenesis at mild dysplastic stage. Exposure to CCl4/NDEA resulted in upregulation of ppRb807/811, cyclinD1 and cdc25A at 10th week and additional activation of cMyc and mdm2 along with downregulation of LIMD1, p53 and p21 at 20th week. This was followed by activation of ppRb567 and downregulation of Rbsp3 at 30th week. Prevention of carcinogenesis by amarogentin in both groups might be due to cumulative upregulation of LIMD1, RBSP3, p16 and downregulation of cdc25A at 10th week along with activation of p53 and p21 and downregulation of ppRb807/811 and ppRb567 at 20th week, followed by downregulation of cyclinD1, cMyc and mdm2 at 30th week. During carcinogenesis reduction of apoptosis was evident since 20th week. However, amarogentin treatment could significantly induce apoptosis through upregulation of the Bax-Bcl2 ratio, activation of caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase cleavage. This is the first report of chemopreventive/therapeutic role of amarogentin during liver carcinogenesis through modulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

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