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The National Research Council is the primary national research and technology organization of the Government of Canada, in science and technology research and development. The Minister of Industry is responsible for the National Research Council . The transformation of the NRC into an RTO that focuses on "business-led research" was part of the federal government's Economic Action Plan. On 7 May 2013, the NRC launched its new "business approach" in which it offered four business lines: strategic research and development, technical services, management of science and technology infrastructure and NRC-Industrial Research Assistance Program . With these services, NRC intends to shorten the gap between early stage research and development and commercialization. NRC now has over 30 approved programs. Wikipedia.

Di Marzo V.,National Research Council Italy | Stella N.,University of Washington | Zimmer A.,University of Bonn
Nature Reviews Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Ageing is characterized by the progressive impairment of physiological functions and increased risk of developing debilitating disorders, including chronic inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. These disorders have common molecular mechanisms that can be targeted therapeutically. In the wake of the approval of the first cannabinoid-based drug for the symptomatic treatment of multiple sclerosis, we examine how endocannabinoid (eCB) signalling controls-and is affected by-normal ageing and neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. We propose a conceptual framework linking eCB signalling to the control of the cellular and molecular hallmarks of these processes, and categorize the key components of endocannabinoid signalling that may serve as targets for novel therapeutics. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Fatica A.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Bozzoni I.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Bozzoni I.,National Research Council Italy | Bozzoni I.,Italian Institute of Technology
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2014

Genomes of multicellular organisms are characterized by the pervasive expression of different types of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) belong to a novel heterogeneous class of ncRNAs that includes thousands of different species. lncRNAs have crucial roles in gene expression control during both developmental and differentiation processes, and the number of lncRNA species increases in genomes of developmentally complex organisms, which highlights the importance of RNA-based levels of control in the evolution of multicellular organisms. In this Review, we describe the function of lncRNAs in developmental processes, such as in dosage compensation, genomic imprinting, cell differentiation and organogenesis, with a particular emphasis on mammalian development. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Pizzuti C.,National Research Council Italy
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation | Year: 2012

A multiobjective genetic algorithm to uncover community structure in complex network is proposed. The algorithm optimizes two objective functions able to identify densely connected groups of nodes having sparse inter-connections. The method generates a set of network divisions at different hierarchical levels in which solutions at deeper levels, consisting of a higher number of modules, are contained in solutions having a lower number of communities. The number of modules is automatically determined by the better tradeoff values of the objective functions. Experiments on synthetic and real life networks show that the algorithm successfully detects the network structure and it is competitive with state-of-the-art approaches. © 2012 IEEE.

Bachi A.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Dalle-Donne I.,University of Milan | Scaloni A.,National Research Council Italy
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

Integrated redox proteomics methodologies have contributed in a significant way to provide a better understanding of the oxidative and nitrosative post translational modifications (PTMs) occurring in prokaryotes and eukaryotes during their life cycle or eventually associated with the development of pathological state. On the other hand, a number of irreversible redox PTMs, including nitration, some oxidations, halogenation, and carbonylation, as detected by dedicated redox proteomics approaches, have been associated with specific stressing conditions, highly affecting protein activity and, ultimately, cell functionality. Quantitative redox proteomic approaches were used to identify and quantify redox PTMs in PTPs (Protein tyrosine phosphatases) expressed in human, mouse, and rat cell lines and tissues or in response to stimulation of growth factor receptors. By applying these novel quantitative methods, authors found that normal and malignant cells display distinctive patterns of PTP expression and redox modification.

Iozzo P.,National Research Council Italy
Diabetes Care | Year: 2011

Myocardial fat content refers to the storage of triglyceride droplets within cardiomyocytes. In addition, the heart and arteries are surrounded by layers of adipose tissue, exerting vasocrine and paracrine control of the subtending tissues. The rapid development of the field of noninvasive imaging has made it possible to quantify ectopic fat masses and contents with an increasing degree of accuracy. Myocardial triglyceride stores are increased in obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes. The role of intramyocardial triglyceride accumulation in the pathogenesis of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction remains unclear. Increased triglyceride content is associated with states of fatty acid overload to the heart, saturating the oxidative capacity. It may initially serve as a fatty acid sink to circumscribe the formation of toxic lipid species and subsequently foster cardiac damage. Epicardial and perivascular fat depotsmay exert a protective modulation of vascular function and energy partition in a healthy situation, but their expansion turns them into an adverse lipotoxic, prothrombotic, and proinflammatory organ. They are augmented in patients with metabolic disorders and coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the progressive association between the quantity of fat and disease severity in terms of extent of plaque calcification or noncalcified areas, markers of plaque vulnerability, and number of vessels involved is less confirmed. Functional or hybrid imaging may contribute to a better definition of disease severity and unveil the direct myocardial and vascular targets of adipose tissue action. © 2011 by the American Diabetes Association.

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