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The National Research Council is the primary national research and technology organization of the Government of Canada, in science and technology research and development. The Minister of Industry is responsible for the National Research Council . The transformation of the NRC into an RTO that focuses on "business-led research" was part of the federal government's Economic Action Plan. On 7 May 2013, the NRC launched its new "business approach" in which it offered four business lines: strategic research and development, technical services, management of science and technology infrastructure and NRC-Industrial Research Assistance Program . With these services, NRC intends to shorten the gap between early stage research and development and commercialization. NRC now has over 30 approved programs. Wikipedia.


Ingold K.U.,National Research Council Canada | Pratt D.A.,University of Ottawa
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

Antioxidants were divided in two parts radical-trapping antioxidants (RTAs) and preventive antioxidants. By the final quarter of the 20th century, the commercial importance of antioxidants was overshadowed by their putative role in human health, as the implication of radical-mediated oxidation in virtually all types of degenerative diseases, including cancer and aging, emerged. From a commercial perspective, there continues to be significant interest in the development of RTA technology. Much of the industrial research effort has been on optimization of the structures of existing RTAs to provide appropriate physical properties and identification of combinations of existing RTAs that achieve optimal performance via the synergistic interactions.


Vallee J.P.,National Research Council Canada
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

Although the average over time of the arm parameters (arm shape, pitch angle, number of arms, interarm separation) shows constant values, this work investigates why some arm parameters (number of arms, pitch angle) have large discrepancies that are not decreasing with time, despite more and better observational data.Using statistics, we find several instances of poor or no comparisons with a four-arm galactic structure.Using modelling, we confirm that a two-arm galactic structure and a small pitch angle predict too many unseen spiral arm tangents. © 2014 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.


Vallee J.P.,National Research Council Canada
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2014

From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12°) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane). © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Yang J.J.,Hewlett - Packard | Strukov D.B.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Stewart D.R.,National Research Council Canada
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2013

Memristive devices are electrical resistance switches that can retain a state of internal resistance based on the history of applied voltage and current. These devices can store and process information, and offer several key performance characteristics that exceed conventional integrated circuit technology. An important class of memristive devices are two-terminal resistance switches based on ionic motion, which are built from a simple conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stack. These devices were originally conceived in the late 1960s and recent progress has led to fast, low-energy, high-endurance devices that can be scaled down to less than 10 nm and stacked in three dimensions. However, the underlying device mechanisms remain unclear, which is a significant barrier to their widespread application. Here, we review recent progress in the development and understanding of memristive devices. We also examine the performance requirements for computing with memristive devices and detail how the outstanding challenges could be met. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Lam E.,National Research Council Canada | Luong J.H.T.,University College Cork
ACS Catalysis | Year: 2014

Carbon plays a dual role as a catalyst or a catalyst support for chemical and enzymatic biomass transformation reactions due to its large specific surface area, high porosity, excellent electron conductivity, and relative chemical inertness. Advantageously, carbon materials can be prepared from residual biomass, an attractive property for decreasing the so-called "carbon-footprint" of a biomass transformation process. Carbon can be chemically functionalized and/or decorated with metallic nanoparticles and enzymes to impart or improve novel catalytic activity. Sulfonated porous carbon materials exhibit high reactivity in diversified catalytic reactions compared to their nonporous counterparts. However, the SO3H groups prevent the incorporation of hydrophobic molecules into the bulk, thereby causing hydrophobic acid-catalyzed reactions to proceed only on the surface. Metal and enzymatic catalysts on carbon supports have significant advantages over other oxide materials for different types of reactions. The future success of biorefinery will require the design of a new generation of multifunctional catalysts, possibly derived from emerging carbon materials such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and carbon monoliths, for the selective processing of carbohydrates and lignin. The most achievable and economical way is to convert lignocellulosic biomass directly, rather than pure cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin using multifunctional catalysts. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

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