National Research Center on Yak

Arunachal Pradesh, India

National Research Center on Yak

Arunachal Pradesh, India
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Gruber H.,Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding | Gruber H.,TU Munich | Gruber H.,Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority | Paul V.,TU Munich | And 3 more authors.
Transgenic Research | Year: 2012

Cultivation of genetically modified maize (Bt-maize; event MON810) producing recombinant δ-endotoxin Cry1Ab, leads to introduction of the insecticidal toxin into soil by way of root exudates and plant residues. This study investigated the fate of Cry1Ab in soil under long-term Bt-maize cultivation in an experimental field trial performed over nine growing seasons on four South German field sites cultivated with MON810 and its near isogenic non Bt-maize variety. Cry1Ab protein was quantified in soil (<2 mm size) using an in-house validated ELISA method. The assay was validated according to the criteria specified in European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The assay enabled quantification of Cry1Ab protein at a decision limit (CCα) of 2. 0 ng Cry1Ab protein g -1 soil with analytical recovery in the range 49. 1-88. 9%, which was strongly correlated with clay content. Cry1Ab protein was only detected on one field site at concentrations higher than the CCα, with 2. 91 and 2. 57 ng Cry1Ab protein g -1 soil in top and lower soil samples collected 6 weeks after the eighth growing season. Cry1Ab protein was never detected in soil sampled in the spring before the next farming season at any of the four experimental sites. No experimental evidence for accumulation or persistence of Cry1Ab protein in different soils under long-term Bt-maize cultivation can be drawn from this field study. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

PubMed | University of Minnesota, Qatar University, Rogers Bandalero Ranch, National Research Center on Yak and Texas A&M University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene | Year: 2016

Balanced autosomal translocations are a known cause for repeated early embryonic loss (REEL) in horses. In most cases, carriers of such translocations are phenotypically normal, but the chromosomal aberration negatively affects gametogenesis giving rise to both genetically balanced and unbalanced gametes. The latter, if involved in fertilization, result in REEL, whereas gametes with the balanced form of translocation will pass the defect into next generation. Therefore, in order to reduce the incidence of REEL, identification of translocation carriers is critical. Here, we report about a phenotypically normal 3-year-old Arabian mare that had repeated resorption of conceptuses prior to day 45 of gestation and was diagnosed with REEL. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic analyses revealed that the mare had normal chromosome number 64,XX but carried a non-mosaic and non-reciprocal autosomal translocation t(4;10)(q21;p15). This is a novel translocation described in horses with REEL and the first such report in Arabians. Previous cases of REEL due to autosomal translocations have exclusively involved Thoroughbreds. The findings underscore the importance of routine cytogenetic screening of breeding animals.

Das K.C.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Haque N.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Baruah K.K.,National Research Center on Yak | Rajkhowa C.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Mondal M.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2011

A study was conducted to compare the nutrient utilization, growth, and rumen enzyme profile of mithun (Bos frontalis) and Tho-tho cattle (Bos indicus) reared in the same feeding and managemental conditions. For the purpose, male mithun (n = 8) and male Tho-tho cattle (n = 8) of 1. 5 years age, selected from the farm of National Research Centre on Mithun, Nagaland, India, were fed on mixed-tree-leaves-based ration as per the requirement of NRC (2001) for cattle for 12 months. Average daily gain (ADG), average dry matter intake (DMI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) for all animals were recorded. A metabolic trial was conducted at 6 months of the experiment to assess the digestibility coefficient of different nutrients and nutritive value of ration. At 12 months of the experiment, rumen liquor was collected from all animals and analyzed for rumen enzyme profiles, viz., carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase, α-amylase, β-glucosidase, α-glucosidase, urease, and protease. It was found that ADG (507.8 g vs 392.8 g), DM intake (6.59 vs 5.85 kg/day) and DMI/W0. 75 (98.75 g vs 91.00 g/day), crude protein intake (780 vs 700 g/day), and total digestible nutrient intake (3.65 vs 3.32 kg/day) were higher (p < 0.05) in mithun than cattle. The nitrogen balance was higher and FCR was better (p < 0.05) in mithun compared with cattle. The digestibility coefficient of different nutrients was similar (p > 0.05) between the species. The microbial enzyme profiles of mithun and cattle were not different (p > 0.05). The better growth performance of mithun than cattle as found in the present study clearly indicates that the mithun has higher genetic potential for growth than Tho-tho cattle of north-eastern hilly region of India. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Sarkar M.,National Research Center on Yak | Das B.C.,National Research Center on Yak | Dutta Borah B.K.,National Research Center on Yak | Prakash B.S.,National Dairy Research Institute
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2010

Contents: An attempt was made to determine plasma concentrations of, 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2α (PGFM), cortisol and progesterone during periparturient period in yak. Plasma PGFM level showed an increasing trend beginning day 5 prior to parturition (0.48 ± 0.14 ng/ml) and increased steeply thereafter to reach a peak level (17.16 ± 1.31 ng/ml) on the day of parturition. The levels, then, declined sharply on day 1 postpartum to reach 1.20 ± 0.40 ng/ml and thereafter declined gradually over the days to reach 0.28 ± 0.09 ng/ml on day 20 postpartum and this level was maintained with fluctuation within narrow limits thereafter till conclusion of the blood sampling on day 90 post-calving. The plasma progesterone concentration on days 7 and 6 before parturition was high (2.10 ± 0.10 and 2.12 ± 0.10 ng/ml, respectively). The level then decreased gradually and abrupt fall was observed 1-2 days before parturition and became basal on day of parturition (0.24 ± 0.04 ng/ml). This basal level was maintained till the end of the blood sampling on day 90 postpartum. Plasma cortisol level showed an increasing trend beginning day 2 prior to parturition (2.36 ± 0.65 ng/ml) and increased steeply thereafter to reach a peak level (26.65 ± 5.28 ng/ml) on the day of parturition. The levels, then, declined gradually over the days and touched 2.36 ± 0.25 ng/ml on day 3 postpartum and this level was maintained with fluctuation within narrow limits thereafter till day 7 post-calving. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Verlag.

Maiti S.,National Research Center on Yak | Chakravarty P.,National Research Center on Yak | Garai S.,National Dairy Research Institute | Bandyopadhyay S.,National Research Center on Yak | Chouhan V.S.,National Research Center on Yak
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2013

High altitude habitat of yak (Poephagus grunniens L.) remains covered with snow for 5-6 months in a year, and it is considered that yak's natural environment is almost quarantine in disease free zone. But due to the change of socio-economic scenario of pastoral community, yaks are being reared with cattle in semi pastoral system. As a result incidence of almost all the common ailments and diseases of cattle has been reported in the yak tracks of India. For some diseases and ailments they adopted vaccination practices and for some they still depended on their traditional knowledge. Ephemeral fever is one of them for which they depend on different ethnoveterinary practices. In this paper, an attempt has been made how Monpa tribe of Arunachal Pradesh used different ethno-veterinary practices applicable against the ephemeral fever. Sociometry and Quantification of Indigenous Knowledge (QuIk) is applied for documentation and validation of ethno-veterinary practices. It is found that The Monpas are using seven ethno-veterinary practices against ephemeral fever. Out of these seven Thalictrum foliosum is found most significant practices.

Bandyopadhyay S.,National Research Center on Yak | Mahanti A.,West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences | Samanta I.,West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences | Dutta T.K.,Central Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2011

A total of 107 faecal samples were collected from diarrhoeic lambs of high altitude terrains (2,000 to 5,000 m above the mean sea level) of Tawang and West Kameng districts of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Total 234 Escherichia coli were isolated and further subjected to PCR for the study of virulence repertoire characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Out of the 234 isolated E. coli, 32% were found positive for STEC, and 9% were carrying virulence gene for ETEC. The isolated STEC serogroups were O159, O127, O120, O113, O60, O30, O25, O8 and O2. Of all the 74 STEC strains, PCR showed that 18% isolates carried stx 1, 26% possessed stx 2 and 47% produced positive amplicon for both. Other virulent attributes like intimin (eaeA), enterohaemolysin (ehxA) and STEC auto-agglutinating adhesin (saa) were present in 18%, 43% and 44% of the isolates, respectively. The isolated ETEC serogroups were O172, O170, O159, O146, O127, O120, O113, O86, O75, O60, O30, O25, O8, O2, OR and OUT. Of the 22 ETEC-positive isolates, 23%, 18% and 4.5% possessed the gene only for LT, STa and STb, respectively, whereas 54% carried genes for both LT and STb. Some serogroups of E. coli like O159, O127, O120, O113, O60, O30, O25, O8 and O2 possessed genes for both Shiga toxin and enterotoxin. This study is the first report of ETEC isolation from diarrhoeic lambs in India. The moderately high proportion of STEC and ETEC in the diarrhoeic lambs implicated that these animals are important reservoir of STEC and ETEC. This is really a grave concern for the 'brokpas' and nomads (shepherds) who share a close relationship with this animals for their livelihood. This study also indicates that ETEC may be a major cause for frequent diarrhoeal episodes in lambs of this region. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Dutta T.K.,Central Agricultural University | Roychoudhury P.,Central Agricultural University | Bandyopadhyay S.,National Research Center on Yak | Wani S.A.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Hussain I.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2011

Background & objectives: Limited information is available on shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in animals and birds from India. An outbreak of acute diarrhoea in poultry birds at Aizawl, Mizoram was investigated for detection and characterization of STEC and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Methods: E. coli was isolated and identified from rectal swabs, intestinal contents, heart blood and spleen of 19 poultry birds that died due to acute diarrhoea during the outbreak. Phenotypic characterization was done by standard bacteriological and biochemical techniques. All the isolates were serotyped based on their somatic antigens. Virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA) were detected by multiplex PCR assay. Results: A total of 42 E. coli isolates were obtained, of which 24 belonged to 3 serogroups (O64, O89 and O91) and the remaining 18 were untypable (UT). Altogether, 14 (33.33%) isolates carried at least 1 virulence gene, of which 10 (23.81%) and 4 (9.52%) were recorded as STEC and EPEC, respectively. Of the 10 STEC isolates, one carried only stx2, one carried stx2 and hlyA, four carried stx1, stx2 and hlyA, two carried stx1, eaeA and hlyA genes and two carried stx1 and eaeA. Of the four EPEC isolates, two carried eaeA and hlyA, one carried only eaeA gene and 1 carried only hlyA gene. Interpretation & conclusions: This is the first report on the involvement of STEC in poultry in India.

Rana T.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Bera A.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Bera A.K.,National Research Center on Yak | Das S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology | Year: 2012

The present study was planned to investigate the effect of arsenic in rats on several biochemical indices of oxidative stress. Rats were exposed to arsenite in drinking water for upto 12 weeks. Chronic exposure to arsenic for a period of 12 weeks significantly (p < 0.05) increased arsenic burden in blood, liver, and kidney. Several intrinsic antioxidant defenses were activated after a 4-week exposure to arsenic. Some remained elevated, but others became depressed over a longer exposure period. Alterations in most of the biochemical variables reached statistical significant (p < 0.05). Arsenic significantly (p < 0.01) reduced mRNA expression of the superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) gene with respect to the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene. These observations indicated that prolong exposure to arsenic causes induction of oxidative stress and biochemical alterations. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Kandeepan G.,National Research Center on Yak | Sangma S.,National Research Center on Yak
International Journal of Dairy Technology | Year: 2011

Growing health concerns of consuming high fat products offer scope to develop low fat foods. Therefore, a study was undertaken to compare quality attributes of full fat and low fat paneer prepared from yak milk. Optimisation of fat to 1% level significantly increased density in yak milk. Moisture and ash significantly increased but yield and fat decreased in low fat yak milk paneer. No significant difference in microbial load was observed between full fat and low fat paneer. An acceptable low fat paneer with improved body and texture can be prepared with 1% fat in yak milk. © 2010 Society of Dairy Technology.

PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Navsari Agricultural University and National Research Center on Yak
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of parasitic diseases : official organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology | Year: 2015

Ribosomal DNA sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) and 28S ribosomal DNA (618bp) of Fasciola gigantica collected from cattle and buffaloes from four different geographical locations of India, were characterized for genotyping. ITS-2 sequence was analyzed in 28 worms that was typical of F. gigantica and differed at six positions, with one of these being a distinguishing deletion (T) at the 327th position in F. gigantica relative to F. hepatica. However, Fasciola specimens also showed intraspecies sequence polymorphism in the ITS-2, with two different ITS-2 sequences existing in the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) array within a single Fasciola worm. One of the sequences was identical to that of F. gigantica and the other showed extensive sequence polymorphism in the ITS-2. Using BspH1-restriction fragment length polymorphism, six variable ITS-2 sequences in F. gigantica were identified within these parasite specimens and were found distributed in these four geographical regions. 28S rDNA sequence of 24 flukes, collected from the above four geographical regions, showed a single nucleotide polymorphism at 284th nucleotide (G/A). Analyzing the sequence data of 28S rDNA of F. gigantica available from some African and Asian countries for this polymorphic 284th nucleotide position, it is proposed that there are two basic lineages of the F. gigantica for 28S rDNA existing in the fluke populations from five African and several Asian countries.

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