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Teixeira da Silva J.A.,Kagawa University | Rana T.S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Narzary D.,Gauhati University | Verma N.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources NBPGR | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruit tree species, originating in Central Asia, but with a wide geographical global distribution, reflecting its adaptation to a wide range of climatic conditions. It is important for its nutritional, medicinal and ornamental properties and its high consumption and industrial value. In a bid to better utilize and improve the current genetic resources, there is a need to understand and appreciate studies related to the use, centre of origin and diversity, as well as the characterization, evaluation and conservation, taxonomy and systematics of the genus Punica. In addition to understanding the basic biology of the plant, how biotechnological tools, including cell and tissue culture and micropropagation (i.e. somatic embryogenesis, organogenesis, synthetic seeds, somaclonal variation, mutagenesis, haploidy, and in vitro conservation), genetic transformation and marker technology, have been used to improve pomegranate germplasm are all topics that have been covered in this review. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | ICAR Indian Institute of Oil Palm Research, West Virginia State University, University of California at Davis and National Research Center on Pomegranate
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC plant biology | Year: 2016

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, play multiple key roles in plant growth and development and in biotic and abiotic stress response. Knowledge and roles of miRNAs in pomegranate fruit development have not been explored.Pomegranate, which accumulates a large amount of anthocyanins in skin and arils, is valuable to human health, mainly because of its antioxidant properties. In this study, we developed a small RNA library from pooled RNA samples from young seedlings to mature fruits and identified both conserved and pomegranate-specific miRNA from 29,948,480 high-quality reads. For the pool of 15- to 30-nt small RNAs, ~50% were 24nt. The miR157 family was the most abundant, followed by miR156, miR166, and miR168, with variants within each family. The base bias at the first position from the 5 end had a strong preference for U for most 18- to 26-nt sRNAs but a preference for A for 18-nt sRNAs. In addition, for all 24-nt sRNAs, the nucleotide U was preferred (97%) in the first position. Stem-loop RT-qPCR was used to validate the expression of the predominant miRNAs and novel miRNAs in leaves, male and female flowers, and multiple fruit developmental stages; miR156, miR156a, miR159a, miR159b, and miR319b were upregulated during the later stages of fruit development. Higher expression of miR156 in later fruit developmental may positively regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis by reducing SPL transcription factor. Novel miRNAs showed variation in expression among different tissues. These novel miRNAs targeted different transcription factors and hormone related regulators. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses revealed predominant metabolic processes and catalytic activities, important for fruit development. In addition, KEGG pathway analyses revealed the involvement of miRNAs in ascorbate and linolenic acid, starch and sucrose metabolism; RNA transport; plant hormone signaling pathways; and circadian clock.Our first and preliminary report of miRNAs will provide information on the synthesis of biochemical compounds of pomegranate for future research. The functions of the targets of the novel miRNAs need further investigation.

Singh N.V.,National Research Center on Pomegranate | Singh S.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh A.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research | Year: 2011

In-ovulo embryo rescue in grape breeding programme assures breeding efficiency by curtailing 6 to 8 years in the development of seedless grape cultivars. Effect of different growth regulators, culture media, ovule age, cultivars and mycorrhizal strains on successful in-ovulo embryo rescue were studied in this experiment. With respect to mean ovule age (days after pollination), maximum ovule-embryo growth (2.13 mm 2) were obtained when ovules were cultured at 24 days after pollination (DAP) but maximum germination (12.67%) was obtained when ovules were cultured at 28 DAP. The concentration of IAA (4 mg) + GA3 (0.5 mg) proved to be most effective for germination (13.84%). Among various media used for culturing ovules on modified MS medium (1/2 macro +1/1 micro) required minimum days to germinate (96.67) and registered highest germination (13.75%). Chilling treatment was proved to be one of the important factors for embryo maturation and 60 d of chilling treatment at 4 °C improved embryo germination. With respect to the effect of different growth regulators on various rooting and shooting parameters IBA (1.0 mg L -1) and NAA (1.5 mg-L -1) were found superior. While comparing different hardening strategies, a glass jar with polypropylene cap (GPP) was found to be most effective as far as hardening success (66.67%) was concerned. One of the serious impediments in the success of in vitro rescued plantlets is very high field mortality, field survival of rescued plantlets can be effectively increased by using different mycorrhizal strains (AMF) as bio-hardening agents. Among the various strains used for hardening of rescued plantlets T3 inoculated plantlets registered highest survival percent (88.00).

Singh N.V.,National Research Center on Pomegranate | Singh S.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh A.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Meshram D.T.,National Research Center on Pomegranate | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Improper hardening leads to high field mortality and poor growth of in vitro raised plantlets which poses a major hurdle in utilization of in vitro propagation for pomegranate. In this study four arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) strains namely, Glomus mosseae, Acaulospora laevis, Glomus manihotis and a mixed AMF strain were used as biohardening agents to improve survival and growth of in vitro raised pomegranate plantlets. Plantlets inoculated with G. mosseae gave highest survival (90.40% and 88.00% at 60 and 90 DAI, respectively) and root colonization per cent (47.40 and 87.60 at 60 and 90 DAI, respectively). The predominant effect of G. mosseae was also evident on increased plant height (24.96 and 30.50. cm at 60 and 90 DAI, respectively) and root length (23.42 and 27.68. cm at 60 and 90 DAI, respectively) of the inoculated plantlets. G. mosseae and G. manihotis were found more effective in improving most of the growth, physiological and biochemical attributes of inoculated tissue culture raised plantlets. However, total phenol (24.94 and 28.62μg/g at 60 and 90 DAI, respectively) and total chlorophyll (3.70 and 3.96. mg/g at 60 and 90 DAI, respectively) were found highest in mixed AMF inoculated plantlets. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Maity A.,National Research Center on Pomegranate | Pal R.K.,National Research Center on Pomegranate | Chandra R.,National Research Center on Pomegranate | Singh N.V.,National Research Center on Pomegranate
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2014

This study involves isolation, identification and evaluation of the most efficient fungal stain that promotes the plant growth and nutrient uptake in pomegranate in semi-arid agro-ecosystem. Five Penicillium strains were isolated from rhizosphere and evaluated in vitro for their K and P solubilizing efficacy and specific accession numbers were obtained from the National Fungal Collection Centre of India (NFCCI). The best performing strain was identified as Penicillium pinophilum (NFCCI 2498) using DNA sequencing. A pot culture experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of P. pinophilum strain alone or in combination with insoluble K on growth and nutrient uptake of pomegranate plants. Soil inoculation with P. pinophilum was found to increase nutrient uptake (N, P, and K) that resulted in improved growth, significantly higher leaf area index and photosynthetic rate of plant. Inoculation of P. pinophilum with the insoluble K treated (100mgKkg-1 soil) soil exhibited increased potassium and phosphorus uptake by 47.47 and 63.44 per cent, respectively. Mobilization of insoluble P could be attributed to the development and colonization of P. pinophilum in and around the rhizosphere of pomegranate as evidenced by higher dehydrogenase, alkaline and acid phosphatase activity in inoculated soil than control. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Marathe R.A.,National Research Center on Pomegranate | Dhinesh Babu K.,National Research Center on Pomegranate
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2015

For precise diagnosis of leaf nutrient content, it is essential to determine the season of sampling and position of leaves. A field trial was conducted to standardize the leaf sampling technique for nutrient diagnosis in pomegranate cv. Bhagwa grown under semi-arid tropical climate of Solapur, Maharashtra. The results revealed that the seasonal variation in leaf nutrient content was higher and most unstable during rainy season followed by winter and summer season. Monthly analysis of leaf samples showed that leaf N (0.70 to 0.99%), K (1.08 to 1.14%) and Ca (1.41 to 1.58%) content stabilized during November to June, April to June and February to June month respectively. Leaf P content remained more or less constant while Fe and Cu showed maximum fluctuation throughout the year. There was gradual reduction in P (0.195 to 0.121%), Zn (30.6 to 21.4 ppm) and increase in Ca (1.40 to 1.79%) content up to 10th leaf pair from growing tip. It is ideal to collect 10th leaf pair from growing tip during the month of February to March for nutrient diagnosis in the plant. © 2015, Horticulture Society of India. All rights reserved.

Chandra R.,National Research Center on Pomegranate | Jadhav V.T.,National Research Center on Pomegranate
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the important fruit crops grown on commercial scale in Deccan Plateau of India and is gaining a lot of popularity worldwide in recent years owing to its high economic, nutraceutical and therapeutic values (Marathe et al. 2010). It is mainly propagated by air layering in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Unlike other perennial fruit crops, multistem training system is very common in pomegranate (Chandra et al. 2008). Recently, wilt has emerged as an important threat in major pomegranate growing belts of India and to combat this problem neither any standard grafting technique nor suitable rootstock is available. In fruit crops, wedge graft specifically offers very high graft success with greater stability than the other grafting techniques tried due to the instant full balance between the stock and the scion (Tabora and Atienza 2006, Selvi et al. 2008, Somkumar et al. 2009). But, this method was not tested in pomegranate especially for commercial cultivars. Therefore, an attempt was made to standardize grafting method and time in Bhagawa cultivar of pomegranate.

Marathe R.A.,National Research Center on Pomegranate | Chandra R.,National Research Center on Pomegranate | Jadhav V.T.,National Research Center on Pomegranate
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2010

A pot experiment was conducted for 2 consecutive years during 2006-08 at the experimental farm of National Research Centre on Pomegranate, Solapur, Maharashtra to study the effect of different potting media on biomass production, soil fertility status and nutrient uptake pattern of 'Ganesh' pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seedlings. Different potting materials, like black clayey soil, river sand, farmyard manure, vermicompost, sawdust, sugarcane trash were used in different combinations for raising of the seedlings. The results revealed that the seedlings could not survive in sawdust and sugarcane trash media or its incorporation with other media. Significant improvement in available N and micronutrients were observed with the incorporation of vermicompost in soil, while available P and K were very high with farmyard manure. The total nutrient uptake by the seedlings was also highest with vermicompost incorporated in soil. Incorporation of farmyard manure showed complete supremacy in improving nutrient content of leaf, stem and roots of the plants except N. Use of soil and sand alone or mixture of both as potting media was not beneficial to sustain the growth of the seedlings because of their poor fertility status. However, incorporation of sand along with organic manures in soil was rather beneficial that could promote desirable growth of the seedlings by supplementing adequate nutrients and aeration. Thus, soil + sand + vermicompost (1:1:0.5) or soil + sand + farmyard manure (1:1:1) could be used for raising of pomegranate seedlings.

Meshram D.T.,National Research Center on Pomegranate | Singh N.V.,National Research Center on Pomegranate | Pal R.K.,National Research Center on Pomegranate
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different irrigation levels (10 to 50 and 20 to 60%) and mulches (No mulch, dry lawn mulch, dry lawn mulch + hydrogel and hydrogel alone) on growth and yield of Bhagwa pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). The actual pomegranate evapotranspiration in l/day/tree was estimated by using the reference crop evapotranspiration, pan coefficient, crop coefficient, wetted area, area occupied by one tree and micro-irrigation efficiency. The study revealed that mulch + hydrogel enhanced vegetative growth and yield contributing characteristics. However, 30 and 40% irrigation levels for three and four years pomegranate plants, respectively, produced results at par with respect to yield attributing traits, quality, juice content and TSS. Based on statistical analysis of vegetative and yield characteristics, it was inferred that the treatment combination comprising of dry lawn mulch + hydrogel and irrigation levels at 30 and 40% with alternate day irrigation resulted into higher yield with good quality fruits as compared to other treatments.

PubMed | National Research Center on Pomegranate
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular genetics and genomics : MGG | Year: 2015

This genetic diversity study aimed to estimate the population structure and explore the use of association mapping strategies to identify linked markers for bacterial resistance, growth and fruit quality in pomegranate collections from India. In total, 88 accessions including 37 cultivated types were investigated. A total of 112 alleles were amplified by use of 44 publicly available microsatellites for estimating molecular genetic diversity and population structure. Neighbor-joining analysis, model-based population structure and principal component analysis corroborated the genetic relationships among wild-type and cultivated pomegranate collections from India. Our study placed all 88 germplasm into four clusters. We identified a cultivated clade of pomegranates in close proximity to Daru types of wild-type pomegranates that grow naturally near the foothills of the Himalayas. Admixture analysis sorted various lineages of cultivated pomegranates to their respective ancestral forms. We identified four linked markers for fruit weight, titratable acidity and bacterial blight severity. PGCT001 was found associated with both fruit weight and bacterial blight, and the association with fruit weight during both seasons analyzed was significant after Bonferroni correction. This research demonstrates effectiveness of microsatellites to resolve population structure among the wild and cultivar collection of pomegranates and future use for association mapping studies.

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