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Kannur B.H.,Government of Karnataka | Fairoze M.N.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Girish P.S.,National Research Center on Pig | Karabasanavar N.,Veterinary College | Rudresh B.H.,Veterinary College
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2017

Although buffalo has emerged as a major meat producing animal in Asia, major research on breed traceability has so far been focused on cattle (beef). This research gap on buffalo breed traceability has impelled development and validation of buffalo breed traceability using a set of eight microsatellite (STR) markers in seven Indian buffalo breeds (Bhadawari, Jaffaarabadi, Murrah, Mehsana, Nagpuri, Pandharpuri and Surti). Probability of sharing same profile by two individuals at a specific locus was computed considering different STR numbers, allele pooling in breed and population. Match probabilities per breed were considered and six most polymorphic loci were genotyped. Out of eight microsatellite markers studied, markers CSSMO47, DRB3 and CSSM060 were found most polymorphic. Developed technique was validated with known and unknown, blood and meat samples; wherein, samples were genetically traced in 24 out of 25 samples tested. Results of this study showed potential applications of the methodology and encourage other researchers to address the problem of buffalo traceability so as to create a world-wide archive of breed specific genotypes. This work is the first report of breed traceability of buffalo meat utilizing microsatellite genotyping technique. © 2017, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).


PubMed | Assam Agricultural University, Indian National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, University of Maribor, CVSc and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular and cellular probes | Year: 2016

A total of 1034 samples were collected from different sources and C.difficile was isolated from 18 (9.04%) of 199 human, 9 (4.89%) of 184 cattle, 29 (12.44%) of 233 pig, and from 23 (13.94%) of 165 poultry samples. Variations were observed on the rate of isolation according to age and clinical conditions (diarrhoea). None of the samples from cow, sheep, goat, local chicken, and wild animals yielded any C.difficile. Out of those isolates, 8, 2, 19 and 6 isolates from human, cattle, pig and poultry, respectively were toxigenic. The toxigenic isolates carried both tcdA, and tcdB (A


PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute and National Research Center on Pig
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences | Year: 2016

Present study explores the effect of hot summer period on the glycolytic rate of early post-mortem meat quality of Ghungroo and Large White Yorkshire (LWY) pig and comparative adaptability to high temperature between above breeds by shifting the expression of stress related genes like mono-carboxylate transporters (MCTs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs).Healthy pigs of two different breeds, viz., LYW and Ghungroo (20 from each) were maintained during hot summer period (May to June) with a mean temperature of about 38C. The pigs were slaughtered and meat samples from the LWY exhibited significantly (p<0.01) higher plasma cortisol and lactate dehydrogenase concentration than Ghungroo indicating their higher sensitivity to high temperature. LD muscle from LWY pigs revealed lower initial and ultimate pH values and higher drip loss compared to Ghungroo, indicating a faster rate of pH fall. LD muscle of Ghungroo had significantly lower lactate content at 45 min postmortem indicating normal postmortem glycolysis and much slower glycolytic rate at early postmortem. LD muscle of LWY showed rapid postmortem glycolysis, higher drip loss and higher degrees of protein denaturation. Ghungroo exhibited slightly better water holding capacity, lower cooking loss and higher protein solubility. All HSPs (HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90) and MCTs (MCT1, MCT2, and MCT4) in the LD muscle of pigs inclined to increase more in Ghungroo than LWY when exposed to high temperature.Effect of high temperature on the variation of HSPs and MCTs may play a crucial role in thermal tolerance and adaptation to different climatic conditions, pH regulation, muscle acidification, drip loss, protein denaturation and also in postmortem meat quality development.


PubMed | National Research Center on Pig
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal reproduction science | Year: 2014

The present study was aimed to reveal the effect on keeping quality of boar semen on holding or not holding at an elevated temperature than that used for preservation when combined with washing or not washing of seminal plasma. Twenty ejaculates, four from each of five Hampshire boars were used to hold for 0 and 4h in GEPS extender at 22C and subsequently washed (1500g for 10min) of seminal plasma or left unwashed and preserved at 15C for 72h after extending with the same extender. The seminal parameters in terms of sperm motility, live spermatozoa, and live spermatozoa with intact acrosome (LIA) were evaluated at 0h-(immediately after extension) and thereafter at 24h intervals. The mean percentage of sperm motility was significantly (P<0.01) higher in unwashed than washed semen at both 0h and 4h of holding irrespective of preservation period. It was significantly (P<0.01) higher in semen held for 4h than 0h irrespective of washing and significantly (P<0.01) lower in washed than in unwashed semen irrespective of holding during preservation. Irrespective of preservation period the mean percentage of live spermatozoa was significantly (P<0.01) higher with 4h than 0h of holding in both unwashed and washed semen and was significantly (P<0.01) higher in unwashed than washed semen at both 0h and 4h of holding. It was significantly (P<0.01) higher for 4h held semen irrespective of washing and was significantly (P<0.01) lower in washed than in unwashed semen irrespective of holding during preservation. The mean percentage of LIA was significantly (P<0.01) higher with 4h than with 0h holding in both unwashed and washed semen and was significantly (P<0.01) higher in unwashed than in washed semen at both 0h and 4h of holding irrespective of preservation period. It was significantly (P<0.01) higher for 4h held as compared to unheld semen irrespective of washing and was significantly (P<0.01) lower in washed than unwashed semen irrespective of holding during preservation. The mean percentage of sperm motility, live spermatozoa and LIA decreased significantly (P<0.01) in 0h and 4h holding irrespective of washing and in unwashed and washed semen irrespective of holding with increase in preservation period. Among all the treatments unwashed semen held for 4h yielded superior sperm quality on preservation. A total of 32 female pigs were inseminated using preserved semen obtained with the best processing technique found in the study. The conception rate, farrowing rate and litter size at birth were recorded to be 81.25%, 78.13% and 7.96 respectively as compared to 73.38%, 67.57% and 6.68 respectively in the control group. It could be concluded that unwashed Hampshire boar semen held for 4h, extended with GEPS and preserved at 15C for 72h was conducive to obtain optimum fertility and fecundity in females when used for artificial insemination.


PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute, National Research Center on Pig and Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary world | Year: 2016

This study was conducted to understand whether serum level of the steroid and metabolic hormones may be indicative of their level in ovarian follicular fluid (FF) in porcine, and its influence on fertility.Ovaries from pigs (n=32) of two genetic groups, namely, native (Ghungroo; n=16) and crossbred (Hampshire Ghungroo; n=16) were collected. Both the genetic groups comprised gilts (n=8) and sows (n=8), and sows were in luteal phase of estrus cycle. FF was aspirated from small, medium and large follicles, and centrifuged for the collection of supernatant for further analysis. Blood samples were collected from the same animals, and serum was separated. Hormones, namely, cortisol, T3, T4 and testosterone were estimated by radioimmunoassay. Two-way ANOVA was used for analysis of data considering genetic background (native or crossbred), stage of reproductive life (gilt or sow), and source of sample (serum or FF) as fixed effects.It was observed that all the hormones except cortisol differed significantly (p<0.01) based on genetic background. Stage of reproductive life and source of sample did not affect the studied hormonal level. Within the genetic groups, stage of reproductive life influenced T3 (p<0.01), cortisol (p<0.05) and testosterone (p<0.01) level in crossbred pigs as compared to T3 (p<0.01) only in native pigs. The level of T3 in serum, as well as FF, was higher (p<0.01) in Ghungroo gilts compared to sows. However, a reverse of this was observed in the case of crossbred pigs. The level of cortisol (p<0.05) and testosterone (p<0.01) was higher in crossbred sows than gilts in both serum and FF.The study revealed that serum level of the steroid and metabolic hormones is indicative of their level in the ovarian FF. Further, varying level of steroid and metabolic hormones in pigs based on genetic background may be due to variation in body size, rate of energy metabolism and stage of (re)productive life.


Harihara Iyer M.N.,National Research Center on Pig | Harihara Iyer M.N.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sarmah B.C.,Assam Agricultural University | Tamuli M.K.,National Research Center on Pig | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Animal Nutrition | Year: 2012

The present study was conducted to assess whether the partial replacement of feed energy by vegetable oils containing high medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MCFA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) would modify lipogenic gene expression and other parameter of fat metabolism in pigs. Eighteen pigs (17-19 kg body weight) received one of three experimental diets for 60 days (six animals per group): (i) Control diet; (ii) a diet with sunflower oil (SO) or (iii) a diet with coconut oil (CO). In diets SO and CO, 10% of the feed energy was replaced by the respective oils. The experimental treatment did not influence the performance of the pigs. In blood serum, an increased content of total cholesterol was observed for SO and CO fed animals, whereas no significant changes for total triglycerides and different lipoprotein fractions were detected. The fatty acid composition of adipose tissue was significantly modified, with an increased content of MCFA and n-6 PUFA in CO and SO fed pigs, respectively. The gene expression for fatty acid synthase was decreased for SO and CO fed pigs; for stearoyl CoA desaturase and sterol regulatory element binding protein, a depression was observed in SO but not in CO fed pigs. The results of present study suggest that the type of dietary fat can modulate the adipose tissue gene expression and fatty acid composition differentially, with minimal effect on serum lipid profile. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Magotra A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Naskar S.,National Research Center on Pig | Das B.,Assam Agricultural University | Ahmad T.,NDRI
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2015

The Follicle stimulating hormone beta polypeptide (FSHβ) gene has been investigated as a candidate gene for litter size because of its role in maturation of small and medium follicles into ovulating large follicles. Genes coding follicle stimulating hormone have been found to have significant effects on litter size in pigs. The aim of the study was to investigate the polymorphism of the first intron of FSH-β gene present in Ghungroo, Niang Megha and Nagaland local pigs of India. PCR based short interspersed nuclear elements (SINE) detection method and PCR–RFLP were carried out to identify the polymorphism in FSHβ gene. Significantly higher frequencies of SINE−/− and SINE+/− genotypes were observed in Ghungroo pigs as compared to Niang Megha and Nagaland local pigs. PCR–RFLP study also showed higher frequency of T allele in all the three breeds even though there existed difference in genotypes among breeds. Association studies clearly demonstrated that SINE−/− genotypes have significantly higher litter size and weight at birth as well as at weaning. SINE −/− genotypes have higher number of live births too. Moderately high D′ value indicates that haplotypic pattern within the two loci can be utilized for marker assisted selection for litter traits in pigs. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


PubMed | University of Maribor, Assam Agricultural University, National Research Center on Pig, State Biotech Hub and CVSc
Type: | Journal: Anaerobe | Year: 2015

One hundred and seventeen faecal samples from pet dogs (pup = 21 and adult = 96) brought for treatment to a veterinary clinic were examined for Clostridium difficile. A total of 16 (13.67%) samples were positive. Nine (56.25%) isolates were obtained from 17 adult dogs undergoing antibiotic treatment and this was significantly higher (p < 0.01) as compared to isolates from dogs without antibiotic treatment. Ten isolates (62.5%) were toxigenic (all toxinotype 0) and six were non-toxigenic. None of the isolates were positive for binary toxin genes. PCR ribotyping revealed three different ribotypes (012, 014 and 046) among A(+)B(+) isolates and five different ribotypes (010, SLO 131, and ACD 001 to ACD 003) among A(-)B(-) isolates. The PFGE analysis of toxigenic isolates revealed three different pulsotypes corresponding to the PCR ribotypes.


PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Kumaun University and National Research Center on Pig
Type: | Journal: Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene | Year: 2016

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of testicular tissue lysate (TTL) on developmental competence of germinal vesicle (GV) stage porcine oocytes. Two types of TTL were prepared through repeated freeze-thaw in liquid nitrogen, one from whole testicular tissue (wTTL) and other from either of four different sections of testes, namely just beneath the tunica albuginea (TA), from the transitional area between the seminiferous cord/tubules and the mediastinum testis (TR) and from the intermediate area (parenchymal tissue origin) and CE (cauda epididymis origin). The whole or section-wise TTL treatments were given for 44hr during in vitro maturation (IVM). Oocyte maturation was done in either of the two media, namely defined (high-performance basic medium for porcine oocyte maturation, commercially available) and serum containing (TCM199). After maturation, oocytes were co-incubated with fresh spermatozoa for 6hr and then transferred to embryo culture media. Treatment of GV stage oocytes with wTTL (1mg/ml) increased the cleavage and morula percentage rate (69.236.23 and 48.156.77, respectively) than that of their control (58.338.08 and 32.545.53, respectively) in defined media, and in serum-containing media, cleavage and morula percentage rate were almost equal in both treatment (54.567.79 and 34.706.78, respectively) and control (59.528.21 and 38.526.54, respectively). However, effect of wTTL was not significant. In case of section-wise TTL supplements, TR section significantly (p<.01) improved cleavage and morula rate (58.437.98 and 36.146.89, respectively) followed by TA. In conclusion, present study indicates that IVM, in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture of embryo are improved in the presence of TTL, particularly its TR section. Further study is expected to reveal the principal components of TTL which may prove useful for IVM.


PubMed | Assam Agricultural University and National Research Center on Pig
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Open veterinary journal | Year: 2015

The present investigation was undertaken to study the physical and morphometric characteristics in indigenous cattle of Assam. The data pertain to 339 indigenous cattle of different categories. The physical characteristics included colour pattern of body coat, muzzle, tail switch, hoof and horn. Body length, height at wither, heart girth, pouch girth, length of tail, switch, neck, ear and head were taken up for morphometric characterization. The main body coat colour of indigenous cattle was brown (31.18%) followed by white (28.53%), fawn (15.29%), grey (13.53%), black (4.41%) and mixed (7.06%). The prominent colour of tail switch was black (74.53%). Most of animals had black muzzle (86.47%), black hooves (84.71%) and black horn (100%). Morphometric characteristics data obtained were classified according to location, age group and sex of the animal. The means for body length, height at wither, heart girth, pouch girth, length of tail, switch, neck, ear and head were 83.6680.590, 91.9420.55, 113.1460.738, 121.1810.761, 54.1960.527, 26.0980.186, 32.7050.166, 18.1310.111 and 35.0350.195 cm, respectively. Age and sex had significant effect on all the morphometric characters however, location effect was non-significant. The indigenous cattle of Assam are comparatively smaller in size than most of the recognized breeds of cattle however coat colour showed sizeable variation. The data generated for indigenous cattle of Assam would be useful to characterize them.

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