National Research Center on Mithun

Nagaland, India

National Research Center on Mithun

Nagaland, India
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Khan M.H.,National Research Center on Mithun | Manoj K.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Pramod S.,Central Institute for Research on Cattle
Veterinary World | Year: 2016

Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of major reproductive problems of dairy cattle reared under a semi-intensive system by small and marginal farmers in Meghalaya province of North-Eastern India. Materials and Methods: In a 3 years study, a total of 576 crossbred dairy cattle (212 Holstein Friesian cross and 364 Jersey cross) from all districts (n=11) of Meghalaya were assessed with the survey, clinical examination, and personal observations. Results: Out of the total animal assessed, 33.85% (n=195) were found to be affected with one or more of the clinical reproductive problems. Repeat breeding (RB), anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion were found to be the major clinical reproductive problems. Out of the total animal affected with reproductive disorders, the incidence of anestrus, RB, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion was found to be 31.79% (n=62), 24.61% (n=48), 14.35% (n=28), and 11.25% (n=22), respectively. In addition, dystocia (5.12%), prolapse (1.53%), endometritis (4.61%), and pyometra (6.66%) were minor clinical reproductive problems. There was a significant difference in the incidence of reproductive disorders with respect to breed, age, and parity. Conclusion: It was revealed from this study that RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and dystocia are the major clinical reproductive problems in Meghalaya. Results indicated unsatisfactory feeding, housing, and health management practices are the main cause of low fertility of dairy cows. Lack of scientific knowledge, low access to breeding, and health services further contributed to low productivity and fertility. © Khan, et al.


Arunkumar S.,TANUVAS Veterinary College and Research Institute | Krupakaran R.P.,TANUVAS Veterinary College and Research Institute | Perumal P.,National Research Center on Mithun
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2017

The present study was carried out to ascertain the presence of matrix metalloproteinases activity in excretory/ secretory (E/S) antigens of larvae of Oestrus ovis by gelatin zymography. The larvae of O. ovis were collected from sheep slaughtered at local abattoirs in Orathanadu and Thanjavur. Live, intact larvae were washed thoroughly with phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) and suspended in PBS at 37°C in an incubator for 16 h. After incubation, the fluid was collected, centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 15 min at 4°C and the supernatant was used as E/S antigen. On gelatin zymographic analysis, presence of 220 kDa MMP-9 (pro form) and 210 kDa (active form) homodimeric forms was observed as a fainter band at the top of the gelatin zymogram. A clear, bright gelatinolytic activity was observed at 20 kDa level at the bottom of the zymogram. The other forms of MMP-9, viz. 135 heterodimeric form was observed at 125 kDa size (active form) as a fainter band and the 72 kDa MMP-2 was detected as a fainter bands at 72 kDa (pro form) and 62 kDa (active form). The strong gelatinolytic activity detected at 20 kDa level of E/S antigens of O. ovis was the catalytic breakdown products of the MMPs found in the fluid. It was concluded that the activity of the MMPs in the E/S antigens of O. ovis was very strong, helping in the migration of the larvae from one site to the other.


Perumal P.,National Research Center on Mithun | Vupru K.,National Research Center on Mithun | Rajkhowa C.,National Research Center on Mithun
Veterinary Medicine International | Year: 2013

The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of taurine on sperm motility, viability, total sperm abnormalities, acrosomal and plasma membrane integrity, enzymatic profiles such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), and biochemical profiles such as cholesterol efflux and malondialdehyde (MDA) production. A total of 50 ejaculates were collected twice a week from 8 mithun bulls, and semen was split into 4 equal aliquots and diluted with the TEYC extender. Group 1: semen was without additives (control); groups 2 to 4: semen was diluted with 25 mM, 50 mM, and 100 mM of taurine, respectively. Seminal parameters and enzymatic and biochemical profiles were assessed at 5°C. Inclusion of taurine into diluent resulted in significant (P < 0. 05) decreases in percentages of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa, and acrosomal abnormalities after liquid storage compared with the control group. Additionally, taurine at 50 mM has significant improvement in quality of mithun semen than taurine at 25 or 100 mM stored in in vitro at 5°C. It was concluded that the possible protective effects of taurine on sperm parameters are from enhancing the function of antioxidant enzymes, preventing efflux of cholesterol from cell membranes and decreased MDA production. © 2013 P. Perumal et al.


Chamuah J.K.,National Research Center on Mithun | Borkotoky D.,National Research Center on Mithun
Journal of Parasitic Diseases | Year: 2017

A pathological study was carried out in different helminth parasite infection organs in 110 animals during the period from 2010 to 2016. Histopathological examination of hydatid cysts in the liver, showed extensive fibrous connective tissue proliferation with eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration, in lung, parenchyma showed severe emphysema with infiltration of alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes infiltration. In Toxocara infection, polymorphonuclear infiltration in the sub-mucosa with hyper activity of goblet cells leading to occlusion of the gland was noted in the tissue sections. In amphistomiasis, intestinal mucosa showed diffuse hyperemia, thickening and ulceration. Petechiae were observed in the anterior part of the duodenum and jejunum. Presence of parasites in the abomasum revealed petechial haemorrhages on the mucousa. In Trichuris infection, the rectum showed hypertrophy, hyperplasia and hyperactivity of the goblet cells. In some places there is focal aggregation of mononuclear cells. © 2017 Indian Society for Parasitology


Perumal P.,National Research Center on Mithun | Rajkhowa C.,National Research Center on Mithun
Indian Journal of Animal Research | Year: 2015

A total 50 ejaculates from eight mithun bulls were collected twice a week over 8 months and semen pooled to eliminate individual differences and was split into four equal aliquots, diluted with the TEYC extender. Group 1: diluted 1:2 with TEYC extender (control), group 2 to 4: semen diluted with 1:2 TEYC extender supplemented with 6, 8 and 10 ml of PJ/ 100 ml of diluent, respectively. The seminal parameters and biochemical profiles were assessed at 5°C for 0, 6, 12, 24 and 30 h of incubation. Inclusion of PJ into diluent resulted in significant (p < 0.05) decrease in percentages of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa and acrosomal abnormalities at different hours of storage periods. Additionally, PJ at 6 and 10 ml were inferior to PJ 8 ml treatments as regards to these characteristics. It was concluded that the possible protective effects of PJ on sperm parameters are enhancing the function of antioxidant enzymes and prevent efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids from cell membrane during preservation. © 2015 Agricultural Research Communication Centre. All rights reserved.


Katole S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Saha S.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sastry V.R.B.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Lade M.H.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Prakash B.,National Research Center on Mithun
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of feeding processed Jatropha meal (JM) incorporated diets on intake, digestibility, blood metabolites and hormonal profile in sheep. The fifteen adult male non-descript sheep were randomly divided into three equal groups. Throughout the 90-d experimental period, all the animals were fed oat (Avena sativa) straw ad libitum and one of three concentrate mixtures: maize 320g/kg, wheat bran 340g/kg, rice bran 110g/kg, soybean meal 200g/kg, mineral mixture 20g/kg, and salt 10g/kg (T1) and sodium chloride (NaCl; 10g/kg JM; T2) or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] processed JM (5g/kg JM; T3) substituting 120g/kg of crude protein (CP) in T1 (T2 and T3). The metabolism trial was conducted during the last 7d of the experiment. Blood samples were collected at day 0, 30, 60 and 90 of the experiment to study the blood metabolites. The phorbol ester and haemagglutination (HA) activity were reduced considerably in processed JM. The dry matter, organic matter and CP intake were lower (P<0.05) in sheep fed T2 and T3 compared to T1. The packed cell volume, serum albumin, glucose, serum urea, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and testosterone contents decreased (P<0.05) in sheep fed T2 and T3 compared to T1. Alkaline phosphatase activity was lower (P<0.01) in T2 and T3 compared to T1, whereas lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate amino transferase activities increased (P<0.01) in sheep fed T2 and T3 compared to T1. From the observations, it is concluded that, even though phorbol ester content and HA activity was markedly decreased by processing JM with NaCl and Ca(OH)2, this was not sufficient to reach a safe level for feeding sheep. A reduced nutrient intake and unusual blood metabolite levels was evident in the processed JM-fed animals. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Peruma P.,National Research Center on Mithun | Chamuah J.K.,National Research Center on Mithun | Rajkhowa C.,National Research Center on Mithun
Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction | Year: 2013

Objective: To assess the effect of catalase (CAT) on sperm motility, viability, total sperm abnormality, acrosomal and plasma membrane integrity, enzymatic profiles such as aspartate amino transaminase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), biochemical profiles such as cholesterol efflux and malonaldehyde (MDA) production and antioxidant profiles such as reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Methods: Total numbers of 50 ejaculates were collected twice a week from eight mithun bulls and semen was split into four equal aliquots, diluted with the TEYC extender. Group 1: semen without additives (control), group 2 to group 4: semen was diluted with 50 U/mL, 100 U/mL and 150 U/mL of catalase, respectively. These seminal, enzymatic, biochemical and antioxidant profiles were assessed at 5 °C for 0, 6, 12, 24 and 30 h of incubation. Results: Inclusion of catalase into diluent resulted in significant (. P < 0.05) decrease in percentages of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa and acrosomal abnormalities at different hours of storage periods as compared with control group. Additionally, CAT at 50 and 150 U/mL were inferior to CAT 100 U/mL treatments as regards to these characteristics and CAT at 100 U/mL has significant improvement in quality of mithun semen in in- vitro stored for up to 30 h. Conclusions: It was concluded that the possible protective effects of CAT on sperm parameters are it prevent efflux of cholesterol from cell membrane, MDA production and protect the function of antioxidants during preservation. © 2013 Hainan Medical College.


Perumal P.,National Research Center on Mithun
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2013

The study was conducted on swamp buffalo cows to study the external pelvimetry. The mean inlet and outlet pelvic area as measured using external pelvimetry were 195.61 ± 3.77 and 123.34 ± 2.99, 216.65 ± 3.95 and 136.60 ± 3.13, 240.24 ± 3.33 and 151.47 ± 2.64, 262.13 ± 4.36 and 165.26 ± 3.46 cm2 in group 1: 24-36 months (n=8), group 2: 37-54 months (n=8), group 3: 55-65 months (n=8) and group 4: 66 months and above (n=8); respectively. The overall area of pelvic inlet and outlet was 228.66 ± 5.40 and 144.17 ± 4.29 cm2, respectively. It was concluded that the pelvic parameters were higher in 66 month and above age group of animals. The result of this study will be utilized for selection of swamp buffalo cows for breeding purpose.


Perumal P.,National Research Center on Mithun | Vupru K.,National Research Center on Mithun | Khate K.,National Research Center on Mithun
International Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of melatonin (MT) on sperm motility, viability, total sperm abnormality, acrosomal and plasma membrane integrity, DNA abnormality, antioxidant profiles such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), enzymatic profiles such as aspartate amino transaminase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), and biochemical profiles such as malonaldehyde (MDA) production and cholesterol efflux. Total numbers of 30 ejaculates were collected twice a week from eight mithun bulls and semen was split into five equal aliquots, diluted with the TEYC extender. Group 1 has semen without additives (control) and group 2 to group 5 have semen that was diluted with 1 mM, 2 mM, 3 mM, and 4 mM of melatonin, respectively. These seminal parameters, antioxidant, enzymatic, and biochemical profiles were assessed at 5°C for 0, 6, 12, 24, and 30 h of incubation. Inclusion of melatonin into diluent resulted in significant (P<0.05) decrease in percentages of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa, and acrosomal abnormalities at different hours of storage periods as compared with control group. Additionally, melatonin at 3 mM has significant improvement in quality of mithun semen than melatonin at 1 mM, 2 mM or 4 mM stored in in vitro for up to 30 h. It was concluded that the possible protective effects of melatonin on sperm parameters are it prevents MDA production and preserve the antioxidants and intracellular enzymes during preservation. © 2013 P. Perumal et al.


Mondal M.,National Research Center on Mithun | Karunakaran M.,ICAR Research Complex for North Eastern Hill Region | Lee K.-B.,Michigan State University | Rajkhowa C.,National Research Center on Mithun
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2010

Technologies for conservation and propagation of genetic resources in the Mithun (Bos frontalis), a rare semi-wild bovine species of Southeast Asia. Successful cryopreservation of Mithun semen would provide a potential vehicle to address above issue. To date, information on characteristics of Mithun ejaculates is not available and there are no reports of birth of live offspring using cryopreserved Mithun semen collected using AV method. A study was therefore conducted to (i) characterize the Mithun ejaculate, (ii) investigate the effectiveness of Mithun sperm cryopreservation, and (iii) determine whether artificial insemination using frozen-thawed Mithun sperm can result in live offspring. Semen samples collected from eight fertile Mithun bulls were evaluated for colour, consistency, volume, concentration, mass activity and progressive motility. The freshly ejaculated sperm were also evaluated for morphological abnormalities, live sperm counts, acrosome integrity, membrane stability (hypo-osmotic swelling test; HOST) and DNA integrity. Semen samples of good quality were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using Tris-egg yolk-glycerol diluent. Post-thaw quality of the cryopreserved sperm in terms of progressive motility, morphological abnormalities, live sperm counts, acrosome integrity, membrane stability and DNA integrity were assessed. In addition, 16 Mithun cows at estrus were inseminated with frozen-thawed Mithun sperm. Following cryopreservation, the percentage of progressive motility (fresh versus frozen-thawed), live sperm counts, morphological abnormalities, acrosome integrity, membrane stability and DNA integrity were found to decrease (P < 0.01) with a motility recovery rate of 74 ± 9%. Mithun cows inseminated with cryopreserved sperm result 75% conception rate and all the conceived cows maintained full-term pregnancy with delivery of live calves. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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