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Rathore S.S.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Karunakaran K.,ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region | Prakash B.,National Research Center on Mithun
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2010

Jhum cultivation is commonly practiced by indigenous tribes in Northeast India. Many of the farmers in Nagaland have developed and practicing Alder (Alnus nepalensis) based farming system. The paper discusses in detail steps involved in increasing the yield of jhum crops. Source


Katole S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Saha S.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sastry V.R.B.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Lade M.H.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Prakash B.,National Research Center on Mithun
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of feeding processed Jatropha meal (JM) incorporated diets on intake, digestibility, blood metabolites and hormonal profile in sheep. The fifteen adult male non-descript sheep were randomly divided into three equal groups. Throughout the 90-d experimental period, all the animals were fed oat (Avena sativa) straw ad libitum and one of three concentrate mixtures: maize 320g/kg, wheat bran 340g/kg, rice bran 110g/kg, soybean meal 200g/kg, mineral mixture 20g/kg, and salt 10g/kg (T1) and sodium chloride (NaCl; 10g/kg JM; T2) or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] processed JM (5g/kg JM; T3) substituting 120g/kg of crude protein (CP) in T1 (T2 and T3). The metabolism trial was conducted during the last 7d of the experiment. Blood samples were collected at day 0, 30, 60 and 90 of the experiment to study the blood metabolites. The phorbol ester and haemagglutination (HA) activity were reduced considerably in processed JM. The dry matter, organic matter and CP intake were lower (P<0.05) in sheep fed T2 and T3 compared to T1. The packed cell volume, serum albumin, glucose, serum urea, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and testosterone contents decreased (P<0.05) in sheep fed T2 and T3 compared to T1. Alkaline phosphatase activity was lower (P<0.01) in T2 and T3 compared to T1, whereas lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate amino transferase activities increased (P<0.01) in sheep fed T2 and T3 compared to T1. From the observations, it is concluded that, even though phorbol ester content and HA activity was markedly decreased by processing JM with NaCl and Ca(OH)2, this was not sufficient to reach a safe level for feeding sheep. A reduced nutrient intake and unusual blood metabolite levels was evident in the processed JM-fed animals. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Perumal P.,National Research Center on Mithun | Rajkhowa C.,National Research Center on Mithun
Indian Journal of Animal Research | Year: 2015

A total 50 ejaculates from eight mithun bulls were collected twice a week over 8 months and semen pooled to eliminate individual differences and was split into four equal aliquots, diluted with the TEYC extender. Group 1: diluted 1:2 with TEYC extender (control), group 2 to 4: semen diluted with 1:2 TEYC extender supplemented with 6, 8 and 10 ml of PJ/ 100 ml of diluent, respectively. The seminal parameters and biochemical profiles were assessed at 5°C for 0, 6, 12, 24 and 30 h of incubation. Inclusion of PJ into diluent resulted in significant (p < 0.05) decrease in percentages of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa and acrosomal abnormalities at different hours of storage periods. Additionally, PJ at 6 and 10 ml were inferior to PJ 8 ml treatments as regards to these characteristics. It was concluded that the possible protective effects of PJ on sperm parameters are enhancing the function of antioxidant enzymes and prevent efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids from cell membrane during preservation. © 2015 Agricultural Research Communication Centre. All rights reserved. Source


Perumal P.,National Research Center on Mithun
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2013

The study was conducted on swamp buffalo cows to study the external pelvimetry. The mean inlet and outlet pelvic area as measured using external pelvimetry were 195.61 ± 3.77 and 123.34 ± 2.99, 216.65 ± 3.95 and 136.60 ± 3.13, 240.24 ± 3.33 and 151.47 ± 2.64, 262.13 ± 4.36 and 165.26 ± 3.46 cm2 in group 1: 24-36 months (n=8), group 2: 37-54 months (n=8), group 3: 55-65 months (n=8) and group 4: 66 months and above (n=8); respectively. The overall area of pelvic inlet and outlet was 228.66 ± 5.40 and 144.17 ± 4.29 cm2, respectively. It was concluded that the pelvic parameters were higher in 66 month and above age group of animals. The result of this study will be utilized for selection of swamp buffalo cows for breeding purpose. Source


Perumal P.,National Research Center on Mithun | Rajkhowa C.,National Research Center on Mithun
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2013

Mithun (Bos frontalis), a unique free - range bovine species of North Eastern Hilly (NEH) region of India(Simoons 1984). It is a beef animal and rearing under semiintensive system. The demand for sperm from outstanding sires has increased with the development of frozen semen and the growth of large artificial breeding organizations.Methods for predicting potential sperm production and particularly for identifying bulls with high sperm output potential at an early age are important. Generally testicular measurements at early ages are very useful in selection of breeding sire to collect semen for artificial insemination.Testicular parameters have a direct relationship with sperm production. There are various reports on the testicular growth and related semen characteristics in different species (Pant et al. 2003, Elmaz et al. 2008). But studies on mithun species are scarce. Therefore the present study was designed to estimate the testicular parameters at different ages and correlate with body weight and semen production in mithun to provide data for the definite selection of mithun bulls.A total of thirty two apparently healthy mithun bulls with different age groups were selected from the herd derived from various hilly tracts of the NEH region with good body condition (score 5-6) maintained under uniform feeding,housing and lighting conditions at the NRC on Mithun,Nagaland, India. According to their age, the experimental bulls were equally divided into four groups each of 8 bulls viz., group 1: 24 - 36 months (n=8), group 2: 37-48 months(n=8), group 3: 49 - 72 months (n=8) and group 4: 72 months and above (n=8). Source

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