PubMed | National Research Center on Mithun and Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of parasitic diseases : official organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology | Year: 2016
The present observation was recorded at National Research Centre on Mithun, Jharnapani from May 2010 to September 2012. A total of 15 mithun calves, which died in and around Jharnapani, were attended and detailed post-mortem examination was carried out. Out of these, five calves (33.33%) aging between 1 and 1.5years exhibiting the condition of chronic wasting and diarrhoea were found positive for pimply gut condition based on gross and microscopic examination. Post-mortem examination revealed extensive nodule formation on the wall of the rectum; however, the entire lumen did not reveal any of adult parasites. In all the cases, there were congestion in the mucous layer and thickening of the intestinal wall. Histopathological examination revealed chronic enteritis with mononuclear cell infiltration comprising mostly of macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils. In the muscularis mucosae, encysted larvae were found along with fibrous tissue proliferation. These lesions gave the intestine a nodular appearance as they thickened the wall and projected from the serosal surface. These extensive numbers of nodules in the intestine might have interfered with peristalsis and intestinal absorption which led to chronic wasting and diarrhoea in the calves.
PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute, National Research Center on Mithun and ICAR Central Institute for Research on Cattle
Type: | Journal: Animal reproduction science | Year: 2016
Buffalo spermatozoa are comparatively more susceptible to freezing hazards than cattle spermatozoa. In recent times incubation of spermatozoa with cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrins (CLC) has shown improvements in semen quality in several species. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the incubation level of CLC at which maximum benefit is derived for the buffalo spermatozoa. For the study, 120 million spermatozoa were incubated in 2, 3 and 4 mg/mL of CLC (Gr II, III and IV, respectively) and cholesterol and phospholipids content, their ratio, flow cytometric evaluation of plasma membrane integrity (PMI), plasma membrane fluidity and extent of cryoinjury (Chlortetracycline, CTC assay) were compared with an untreated control (Gr I). Additionally the ability of cholesterol-loaded-spermatozoa to undergo induced acrosome reaction (IAR) using ionophore calcium (A23187) was evaluated in frozen-thaw samples. Data show a significant and linear increase (CV=0.88) in cholesterol content of spermatozoa in Gr II, III and IV and a significant decrease in phospholipids content at frozen-thaw stage in Gr IV than Gr III spermatozoa. The study revealed a significant improvement in PMI and significant reduction in plasma membrane fluidity and cryoinjury of CLC treated spermatozoa at progressive stages in three groups compared to control. Nevertheless, spermatozoa of Gr II, III and IV were significantly less responsive to ionophore calcium (A23187) than Gr I. This study shows for the first time that incubation of buffalo bull spermatozoa with CLC (3mg/12010(6)) prior to processing permits greater numbers of sperm to survive cryopreservation while allowing spermatozoa to capacitate and the acrosome to react to AR inducer ionophore calcium (A23187).
PubMed | National Research Center on Mithun, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region and Central Institute for Research on Cattle
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary world | Year: 2016
This study was conducted to determine the incidence of major reproductive problems of dairy cattle reared under a semi-intensive system by small and marginal farmers in Meghalaya province of North-Eastern India.In a 3 years study, a total of 576 crossbred dairy cattle (212 Holstein Friesian cross and 364 Jersey cross) from all districts (n=11) of Meghalaya were assessed with the survey, clinical examination, and personal observations.Out of the total animal assessed, 33.85% (n=195) were found to be affected with one or more of the clinical reproductive problems. Repeat breeding (RB), anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion were found to be the major clinical reproductive problems. Out of the total animal affected with reproductive disorders, the incidence of anestrus, RB, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion was found to be 31.79% (n=62), 24.61% (n=48), 14.35% (n=28), and 11.25% (n=22), respectively. In addition, dystocia (5.12%), prolapse (1.53%), endometritis (4.61%), and pyometra (6.66%) were minor clinical reproductive problems. There was a significant difference in the incidence of reproductive disorders with respect to breed, age, and parity.It was revealed from this study that RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and dystocia are the major clinical reproductive problems in Meghalaya. Results indicated unsatisfactory feeding, housing, and health management practices are the main cause of low fertility of dairy cows. Lack of scientific knowledge, low access to breeding, and health services further contributed to low productivity and fertility.
PubMed | National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, National Research Center on Mithun and National Dairy Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular genetics and genomics : MGG | Year: 2016
Hybrid sterility or reproductive isolation in mammals has been attributed to allelic incompatibilities in a DNA-binding protein PRDM9. Not only is PRDM9 exceptional in being the only known speciation gene in vertebrates, but it is also considered to be the fastest evolving gene in the genome. The terminal zinc finger (ZF) domain of PRDM9 specifies genome-wide meiotic recombination hotspot locations in mammals. Intriguingly, PRDM9 ZF domain is highly variable between as well as within species, possibly activating different recombination hotspots. The present study characterized the full-length coding sequence of PRDM9 in cattle and buffalo and explored the diversity of the ZF array in 514 samples from different bovids (cattle, yak, mithun, and buffalo). Substantial numerical and sequence variability were observed in the ZFs, with the number of repeats ranging from 6 to 9 in different bovines. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 37 different ZFs in cattle, 3 in mithun, 4 in yak, and 13 in buffaloes producing 41 unique PRDM9 alleles in these species. The posterior mean of dN/dS or omega values calculated using Codeml tool of PAMLX identified sites -5, -1, +2, +3, +4, +5, and +6 in the ZF domain to be evolving positively in the studied species. Concerted evolution which typifies the evolution of this gene was consistently evident in all bovines. Our results demonstrate the extraordinary diversity of PRDM9 ZF array across bovines, reinforcing similar observations in other metazoans. The high variability is suggestive of unique repertoire of meiotic recombination hotspots in each species.
Perumal P.,National Research Center on Mithun |
Rajkhowa C.,National Research Center on Mithun
Indian Journal of Animal Research | Year: 2015
A total 50 ejaculates from eight mithun bulls were collected twice a week over 8 months and semen pooled to eliminate individual differences and was split into four equal aliquots, diluted with the TEYC extender. Group 1: diluted 1:2 with TEYC extender (control), group 2 to 4: semen diluted with 1:2 TEYC extender supplemented with 6, 8 and 10 ml of PJ/ 100 ml of diluent, respectively. The seminal parameters and biochemical profiles were assessed at 5°C for 0, 6, 12, 24 and 30 h of incubation. Inclusion of PJ into diluent resulted in significant (p < 0.05) decrease in percentages of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa and acrosomal abnormalities at different hours of storage periods. Additionally, PJ at 6 and 10 ml were inferior to PJ 8 ml treatments as regards to these characteristics. It was concluded that the possible protective effects of PJ on sperm parameters are enhancing the function of antioxidant enzymes and prevent efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids from cell membrane during preservation. © 2015 Agricultural Research Communication Centre. All rights reserved.
Katole S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute |
Saha S.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute |
Sastry V.R.B.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute |
Lade M.H.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute |
Prakash B.,National Research Center on Mithun
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of feeding processed Jatropha meal (JM) incorporated diets on intake, digestibility, blood metabolites and hormonal profile in sheep. The fifteen adult male non-descript sheep were randomly divided into three equal groups. Throughout the 90-d experimental period, all the animals were fed oat (Avena sativa) straw ad libitum and one of three concentrate mixtures: maize 320g/kg, wheat bran 340g/kg, rice bran 110g/kg, soybean meal 200g/kg, mineral mixture 20g/kg, and salt 10g/kg (T1) and sodium chloride (NaCl; 10g/kg JM; T2) or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] processed JM (5g/kg JM; T3) substituting 120g/kg of crude protein (CP) in T1 (T2 and T3). The metabolism trial was conducted during the last 7d of the experiment. Blood samples were collected at day 0, 30, 60 and 90 of the experiment to study the blood metabolites. The phorbol ester and haemagglutination (HA) activity were reduced considerably in processed JM. The dry matter, organic matter and CP intake were lower (P<0.05) in sheep fed T2 and T3 compared to T1. The packed cell volume, serum albumin, glucose, serum urea, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and testosterone contents decreased (P<0.05) in sheep fed T2 and T3 compared to T1. Alkaline phosphatase activity was lower (P<0.01) in T2 and T3 compared to T1, whereas lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate amino transferase activities increased (P<0.01) in sheep fed T2 and T3 compared to T1. From the observations, it is concluded that, even though phorbol ester content and HA activity was markedly decreased by processing JM with NaCl and Ca(OH)2, this was not sufficient to reach a safe level for feeding sheep. A reduced nutrient intake and unusual blood metabolite levels was evident in the processed JM-fed animals. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Peruma P.,National Research Center on Mithun |
Chamuah J.K.,National Research Center on Mithun |
Rajkhowa C.,National Research Center on Mithun
Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction | Year: 2013
Objective: To assess the effect of catalase (CAT) on sperm motility, viability, total sperm abnormality, acrosomal and plasma membrane integrity, enzymatic profiles such as aspartate amino transaminase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), biochemical profiles such as cholesterol efflux and malonaldehyde (MDA) production and antioxidant profiles such as reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Methods: Total numbers of 50 ejaculates were collected twice a week from eight mithun bulls and semen was split into four equal aliquots, diluted with the TEYC extender. Group 1: semen without additives (control), group 2 to group 4: semen was diluted with 50 U/mL, 100 U/mL and 150 U/mL of catalase, respectively. These seminal, enzymatic, biochemical and antioxidant profiles were assessed at 5 °C for 0, 6, 12, 24 and 30 h of incubation. Results: Inclusion of catalase into diluent resulted in significant (. P < 0.05) decrease in percentages of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa and acrosomal abnormalities at different hours of storage periods as compared with control group. Additionally, CAT at 50 and 150 U/mL were inferior to CAT 100 U/mL treatments as regards to these characteristics and CAT at 100 U/mL has significant improvement in quality of mithun semen in in- vitro stored for up to 30 h. Conclusions: It was concluded that the possible protective effects of CAT on sperm parameters are it prevent efflux of cholesterol from cell membrane, MDA production and protect the function of antioxidants during preservation. © 2013 Hainan Medical College.
Perumal P.,National Research Center on Mithun
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2013
The study was conducted on swamp buffalo cows to study the external pelvimetry. The mean inlet and outlet pelvic area as measured using external pelvimetry were 195.61 ± 3.77 and 123.34 ± 2.99, 216.65 ± 3.95 and 136.60 ± 3.13, 240.24 ± 3.33 and 151.47 ± 2.64, 262.13 ± 4.36 and 165.26 ± 3.46 cm2 in group 1: 24-36 months (n=8), group 2: 37-54 months (n=8), group 3: 55-65 months (n=8) and group 4: 66 months and above (n=8); respectively. The overall area of pelvic inlet and outlet was 228.66 ± 5.40 and 144.17 ± 4.29 cm2, respectively. It was concluded that the pelvic parameters were higher in 66 month and above age group of animals. The result of this study will be utilized for selection of swamp buffalo cows for breeding purpose.
Perumal P.,National Research Center on Mithun |
Vupru K.,National Research Center on Mithun |
Khate K.,National Research Center on Mithun
International Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013
The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of melatonin (MT) on sperm motility, viability, total sperm abnormality, acrosomal and plasma membrane integrity, DNA abnormality, antioxidant profiles such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), enzymatic profiles such as aspartate amino transaminase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), and biochemical profiles such as malonaldehyde (MDA) production and cholesterol efflux. Total numbers of 30 ejaculates were collected twice a week from eight mithun bulls and semen was split into five equal aliquots, diluted with the TEYC extender. Group 1 has semen without additives (control) and group 2 to group 5 have semen that was diluted with 1 mM, 2 mM, 3 mM, and 4 mM of melatonin, respectively. These seminal parameters, antioxidant, enzymatic, and biochemical profiles were assessed at 5°C for 0, 6, 12, 24, and 30 h of incubation. Inclusion of melatonin into diluent resulted in significant (P<0.05) decrease in percentages of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa, and acrosomal abnormalities at different hours of storage periods as compared with control group. Additionally, melatonin at 3 mM has significant improvement in quality of mithun semen than melatonin at 1 mM, 2 mM or 4 mM stored in in vitro for up to 30 h. It was concluded that the possible protective effects of melatonin on sperm parameters are it prevents MDA production and preserve the antioxidants and intracellular enzymes during preservation. © 2013 P. Perumal et al.
Mondal M.,National Research Center on Mithun |
Karunakaran M.,ICAR Research Complex for North Eastern Hill Region |
Lee K.-B.,Michigan State University |
Rajkhowa C.,National Research Center on Mithun
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2010
Technologies for conservation and propagation of genetic resources in the Mithun (Bos frontalis), a rare semi-wild bovine species of Southeast Asia. Successful cryopreservation of Mithun semen would provide a potential vehicle to address above issue. To date, information on characteristics of Mithun ejaculates is not available and there are no reports of birth of live offspring using cryopreserved Mithun semen collected using AV method. A study was therefore conducted to (i) characterize the Mithun ejaculate, (ii) investigate the effectiveness of Mithun sperm cryopreservation, and (iii) determine whether artificial insemination using frozen-thawed Mithun sperm can result in live offspring. Semen samples collected from eight fertile Mithun bulls were evaluated for colour, consistency, volume, concentration, mass activity and progressive motility. The freshly ejaculated sperm were also evaluated for morphological abnormalities, live sperm counts, acrosome integrity, membrane stability (hypo-osmotic swelling test; HOST) and DNA integrity. Semen samples of good quality were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using Tris-egg yolk-glycerol diluent. Post-thaw quality of the cryopreserved sperm in terms of progressive motility, morphological abnormalities, live sperm counts, acrosome integrity, membrane stability and DNA integrity were assessed. In addition, 16 Mithun cows at estrus were inseminated with frozen-thawed Mithun sperm. Following cryopreservation, the percentage of progressive motility (fresh versus frozen-thawed), live sperm counts, morphological abnormalities, acrosome integrity, membrane stability and DNA integrity were found to decrease (P < 0.01) with a motility recovery rate of 74 ± 9%. Mithun cows inseminated with cryopreserved sperm result 75% conception rate and all the conceived cows maintained full-term pregnancy with delivery of live calves. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.