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Varalakshmi K.,National Research Center on Meat
International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2016

The paper examines the role of technology for rural development/empowerment. For the purpose of the feasibility, dried meat production with solar energy is considered on a small scale unit of 50 kg/day. The study shows that the small scale production of sundried meat products require capital investment of US$ 0.17 lakhs. Total annual expenditure was estimated as US$ 0.43 lakhs. Cost of production of dried meat comes to US$ 12.38/kg with variable costs of US$ 10.78 and fixed costs of US$ 1.6/kg. Considering all the discounting measures like net present value (Rs. 0.09 lakhs) IRR (41 %) BCR (1.54) and payback period (3.21 years), sun dried meat production in rural areas can become a viable option for farmers to serve dual role of employment generation and profits. The results showed potential and worthiness of sun drying technology for the rural development/empowerment. © 2016 The Author(s) Source

Naveena B.M.,National Research Center on Meat | Faustman C.,University of Connecticut | Tatiyaborworntham N.,University of Connecticut | Yin S.,University of Connecticut | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), an unsaturated aldehyde generated by peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, is highly reactive and destabilizes myoglobin (Mb) redox state, affecting meat colour. Our objective was to characterise the adduction of HNE to turkey and chicken Mbs using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Turkey and chicken oxymyoglobins (OxyMbs) were incubated with HNE at 25 °C, pH 5.8 or 7.4. MetMb formation was greater in the presence of HNE than controls (p < 0.05). Electrospray ionisation-Q-TOF mass spectrometry of HNE-reacted Mbs revealed covalent adduction of HNE to both turkey and chicken Mbs via Michael addition. LC-ESI-MS/MS of chicken Mb reacted with HNE identified covalent adduction of histidine (His) residues 64 and 93 at pH 7.4, whereas at pH 5.8 only His 64 was adducted. These results suggest that HNE accelerates chicken OxyMb oxidation in vitro by covalent modification at histidine residues. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Devatkal S.K.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology | Naveena B.M.,National Research Center on Meat
Meat Science | Year: 2010

Effects of salt, kinnow and pomegranate fruit by-product powders on color and oxidative stability of raw ground goat meat stored at 4 ± 1 °C was evaluated. Five treatments evaluated include: control (only meat), MS (meat + 2% salt), KRP (meat + 2% salt + 2% kinnow rind powder), PRP (meat + 2% salt + 2% pomegranate rind powder) and PSP (meat + 2% salt + 2% pomegranate seed powder). Addition of salt resulted in reduction of redness scores. Lightness increased in control and unchanged in others during storage. Redness scores declined and yellowness showed inconsistent changes during storage. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were higher (P < 0.05) in MS followed by control and KRP samples compared to PRP and PSP samples throughout storage. The PSP treated samples showed lowest TBARS values than others. Percent reduction of TBARS values was highest in PSP (443%) followed by PRP (227%) and KRP (123%). Salt accelerated the TBARS formation and by-products of kinnow and pomegranate fruits counteracted this effect. The overall antioxidant effect was in the order of PSP > PRP > KRP > control > MS. Therefore, these powders have potential to be used as natural antioxidants to minimize the auto-oxidation and salt induced lipid oxidation in raw ground goat meat. Crown Copyright © 2010. Source

Devadason I.P.,National Research Center on Meat | Anjaneyulu A.S.R.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Babji Y.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2010

The functional properties of 4 binders, namely corn starch, wheat semolina, wheat flour, and tapioca starches, were evaluated to improve the quality of buffalo meat nuggets processed in retort pouches at F0 12.13. Incorporation of corn starch in buffalo meat nuggets produced more stable emulsion than other binders used. Product yield, drip loss, and pH did not vary significantly between the products with different binders. Shear force value was significantly higher for product with corn starch (0.42 ± 0.0 Kg/cm 3) followed by refined wheat flour (0.36 ± 0.010 Kg/cm 3), tapioca starch (0.32 ± 0.010 Kg/cm3), and wheat semolina (0.32 ± 0.010 Kg/cm3). Type of binder used had no significant effect on frying loss, moisture, and protein content of the product. However, fat content was higher in products with corn starch when compared to products with other binders. Texture profile indicated that products made with corn starch (22.17 ± 2.55 N) and refined wheat flour (21.50 ± 0.75 N) contributed firmer texture to the product. Corn starch contributed greater chewiness (83.8 ± 12.51) to the products resulting in higher sensory scores for texture and overall acceptability. Products containing corn starch showed higher sensory scores for all attributes in comparison to products with other binders. Panelists preferred products containing different binders in the order of corn starch (7.23 ± 0.09) > refined wheat flour (6.48 ± 0.13) > tapioca starch (6.45 ± 0.14) > wheat semolina (6.35 ± 0.13) based on sensory scores. Histological studies indicated that products with corn starch showed dense protein matrix, uniform fat globules, and less number of vacuoles when compared to products made with other binders. The results indicated that corn flour is the better cereal binder for developing buffalo meat nuggets when compared to all other binders based on physico-chemical and sensory attributes. © 2009 Institute of Food Technologists®. Source

Ramanathan R.,University of Connecticut | Mancini R.A.,University of Connecticut | Maheswarappa N.B.,National Research Center on Meat
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Our objective was to determine the combined effects of lactate, LDH, and NAD on metmyoglobin reduction in mitochondria isolated from bovine cardiac muscle. Mitochondria were reacted with various combinations of lactate, LDH, NAD, and mitochondrial inhibitors, and oxygen consumption was measured using a Clark oxygen electrode. Mitochondria (3 mg/mL) and bovine metmyoglobin (0.15 mM) also were reacted with substrates/enzymes/inhibitors to determine mitochondria-mediated metmyoglobin reduction in vitro. Combining lactate-LDH-NAD with isolated mitochondria increased oxygen consumption as well as metmyoglobin reduction compared with those of either control mitochondria (without lactate) or mitochondria with added lactate, at pH 5.6 and 7.4 (p < 0.05). The addition of mitochondrial and LDH inhibitors to lactate-LDH-NAD decreased oxygen consumption and metmyoglobin reduction (p < 0.05). NADH formed from lactate-LDH-NAD can be used for nonenzymatic (via the electron transport chain) and enzymatic (NADH-dependent metmyoglobin reductase) metmyoglobin reduction. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

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