National Research Center on Litchi

Muzaffarpur, India

National Research Center on Litchi

Muzaffarpur, India
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Srivastava K.,SKUAST Jammu | Srivastava K.,National Research Center on Litchi | Sharma D.,SKUAST Jammu | Singh S.,SKUAST Jammu | Ahmad H.,SKUAST Jammu
Bangladesh Journal of Botany | Year: 2017

Work on ascertaining the diversity and foraging behaviour of pollinators and their impact on seed yield in broccoli was carried out. The blooming crop of the broccoli was visited by 17 species of insects belonging to 6 orders and 11 families of class insects. Hymenopterans were the most dominant visitors constituting 98.18 per cent of the insect visitors, followed by others (1.82%). Among the hymenopteran species, Apis dorsata F. was highest in number (47.88%) among the visitors of broccoli flower, followed by Apis mellifera L. (30.65%), Apis cerana F. (16.31%), Apis florea F. (3.32%) and others (1.82%). The mean foraging rate irrespective of different dates and times was the highest for A. dorsata (5.35 ± 0.33 flowers/min) followed by that of A. mellifera (4.87 ± 0.34 flowers/min), A. cerana (1.75 ± 0.23 flowers/min) and A. florea (0.11 ± 0.09 flowers/ min). The number of flower visit per minute at different time interval was highest in case of A. dorsata, followed by A. mellifera, A.cerana and A. florea. The studies on diurnal foraging speed (time spent by bees in seconds) by honeybees at different times and dates indicated that A. dorsata had the highest foraging speed across different dates and times followed by A. mellifera, A. creana and A. florea. Mean time spent irrespective of different dates and times was the highest for A. dorsata (5.20 ± 0.5.20 sec) followed by that of A. mellifera (3.87 ± 0.22 sec), A. cerana (1.72 ± 0.23 sec) and A. florea (1.05 ± 0.58 sec). The foraging speed was the highest in case of A. dorsata followed by A. mellifera, A. cerana and A. florea on broccoli blooms. Results on the quantitative parameters of yield such as numbers of siliqua per plant, number of seeds per siliqua, seed weight and seed yield showed significant differences under different mode of pollination in the broccoli seed crop.


Srivastava K.,National Research Center on Litchi | Sharma D.,National Research Center on Litchi | Pandey S.D.,National Research Center on Litchi | Anal A.K.D.,National Research Center on Litchi | Nath V.,National Research Center on Litchi
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2017

The studies on pollinator complex and their impact on fruit set, yield and quality characters of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) cv Shahi with reference to Apis mellifera L. was carried at ICAR-NRC on Litchi, Muzaffarpur (Bihar) India, during 2014-15. The 20 pollinator species under 23 genera of 8 families belonging to orders Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera were recorded. Honey bee species Apis dorsata F; Apis mellifera L; Apis cerana F. and Apis florea F. were the most important and efficient pollinators of litchi flowers and constitutes more than 65% of the total pollinators. Other than Apis genera important pollinators were Episyrphus balteatus, Melipona sp, Syrpus sp, Erisyrphus sp, etc. The activity of A. mellifera visiting the flowers was highest (9.66 foragers/panicle/5 min). Correlation and regression analysis revealed that all honey bee species differed in their responses to temperature, light intensity and solar radiation, the three most important factors in foraging behavior. The yield was significantly higher in completely open pollinated plant as compared to A. mellifera pollinated plant. The qualitative and quantitative parameters, viz. fruit size, fruit weight, the maximum seed weight, seed size and TSS were found higher with open pollinated plants followed by A. mellifera pollination. © 2017, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.


Singh S.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Singh S.K.,National Research Center on Litchi | Malhotra S.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Bhargava R.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2017

This study was carried out to investigate morpho-physiological and productivity characteristics of four genotypes of five years old guava (Psidium guajava L.) trees, grown under hot-arid zone of Rajasthan. Preliminary investigation indicated that all four cultivars of guava could survive except merely 10.0% field mortality in guava cv. L-49. The maximum increase in plant height (25.93%) and number of new leaves/branch (4.66) over six months of planting were recorded in Sweta, followed by Lalit, while during fruiting (August for rainy season guava) highest number of new shoot sprouts/branch was found in Allahabad Safeda, followed by Sweta. Lalit and Sweta also produced substantial number of new leaves/branch during fruiting, than the other cultivars. Chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb) and total chlorophyll (Chltotal) contents were highest in L-49, followed by Lalit. The leaves produced on Sweta received lesser photosynthetically active radiations (PAR) but had highest leaf area (80.91 cm2), specific leaf area (SLA; 36.61 cm2/g) and relative water content (RWC; 60.19%). Although L-49 had thicker leaves (lowest SLA; 33. 29 cm2/g), indicating better adaptation towards resource poor environment but other cultivars of guava also had SLA at par among other three cultivars. Allahabad Safeda received maximum PAR (1066 μE/m2/s), also had highest internal CO2 concentration (Ci; 207.76 μmol/mol), while highest net photosynthesis rate (PN; 10.84 μmol CO2/m2/s), carboxylation efficiency (CE) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in Lalit. Guava cv. L-49, however, showed lowest PN (6.31 μmol C02/m2/s), Ci, WUE, transpiration rate (E) and CE. Thus, guava cultivars Sweta followed by Lalit performed better under hot-arid environment with better growth and physiological adaptation. L-49 was not found suitable for the area. © 2017, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.


Barman K.,Tilka Manjhi Bhagalpur University | Sharma S.,National Research Center on Litchi | Patel V.B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Asrey R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

High post-harvest losses in fresh horticultural produce and the increasing apprehensions among the consumers for harmful chemical residues have made it imperative for researchers to find safe, novel and natural techniques to achieve augmentation in shelf-life without having any detrimental influence on human health. Nitrous oxide, commonly known as "Laughing gas" is a naturally occurring colourless and non-flammable atmospheric gas. In the recent past, several researchers have documented that nitrous oxide gas inhibits ethylene production as well as action in freshly harvested fruits and vegetables. It also exhibits high potential in inhibiting fungal growth and decay, consequently reducing post-harvest losses due to diseases. Owing to its non-toxic nature, nitrous oxide can be potentially used to delay ripening and senescence of fresh horticultural produce during post-harvest storage and to assure food safety. In the present review, we have mainly focused on various effects of nitrous oxide on postharvest decay, ethylene biosynthesis and its action, respiration and other physico-chemical attributes of fruits and vegetables. Post-harvest application of nitrous oxide may open up various opportunities for its commercial use to prolong storage and marketability of fresh horticultural produce.


Kumar R.,National Research Center on Litchi
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

The present study was undertaken at the National Research Centre on Litchi, Muzaffarpur, Bihar for two consecutive years 2011-12 and 2012-13 in the young bearing litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) orchard of cv. Shahi to see the effect of shoot tip pruning and de-flushing on reproductive behaviour and fruit yield in litchi. This study confirmed the treatment of shoot tip pruning in mid June evoked maximum number of panicles (41.8% during 2011, 50.5% during 2012-13), causing maximum phase change under the annual production cycle, leading to maximum flowering (860.8 and 1004.3 nos./panicle) with moderately higher fruit set (2.11 % and 4.22%) and highest fruit yield (19.4 kg/tree and 31.9 kg/tree), the pronounced effect recorded when treatment of flush removal applied during mid November, which bore maximum number of panicles (47.3% during 2011-12, 64.3% during 2012-13), maximum flowering (1110.0 nos and 898.5 nos of flowers/panicle) with moderately higher fruit set (3.17% and 4.14 %) and highest fruit yield (25.5 kg/tree and 27.9 kg/tree) in litchi during both the years. Shoot tip pruning in late summer (mid July and mid August) and flush removal in December had virtually poor crop yield since most of the de-flushed branches did not projected a flush of either type of vegetative or reproductive growth before the normal time of even panicle emergence. The study also showed that the age of the previous flush modifies with the cool-temperatureinduced floral response during winter season, while older stems exhibited a higher percentage of reproductive growth by phase change in the form of panicle emergence. The operation of flush removal in mid October displayed only a higher percentage of a vegetative growth and while de-flushing in December projected no growth or if any only vegetative nature. The treatment having pruning in mid June and practice of uniform size and aged (5-8cm) flush removal in the month of November (mid) exposed to low temperature under the conditions of north Bihar leading to highest fruit yield (37.75 kg/tree) and better quality fruits (38.42 % under extra class) with minimum wastage.


Kumar V.,National Research Center on Litchi | Kumar R.,National Research Center on Litchi | Anal A.K.D.,National Research Center on Litchi
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2016

Abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in association with litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) trees were studied during 2012-2013, where orchard soil had high pH (7.42-9.53) and salinity (0.07-0.39 dSm-1). A total of 105 rhizospheric soil and root samples were collected considering variables like location, age of tree, cultivar and production management. Results showed that spore count was in the range of 1-22 g soil. All the examined root segments had colonization of AMF, which ranged between 3.3 to 90.0%. AMF community comprised of Glomus mosseae, G. intaradices, G. constricta, G. coronatum, G.fasciculatum, G. albidum, G. hoi, G. multicauli, Acaulospora scrobiculata, A. laevis, Rhizophagus litchi and Entrophosphora infrequens. Higher spore density and AMF colonization were observed at medium level (13-28 kg ha) of available phosphorus that decreased ('r' = -0.21 for spore density, -0.48 for root colonization) with increasing soil phosphorus. While nitrogen did not influence the AMF association, a weak negative linear relationship with AMF colonization ('r'= -0.30) was apparent in the medium level (112-200 kg ha-1) of potash. Micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn and B) did not affect spore density (zero or a very weak linear correlation) but influenced root colonization ('r'= - 0.53 to -0.44), the effect being more prominent above critical limits. Nutritionally sufficient, irrigated litchi orchards had greater spore count (46% samples having 5-22 spores g-1 soil) and colonization (>50% in 37.4% roots examined) than nutrient deficient, non-irrigated orchards, indicating essentiality of a threshold nutrients and moisture regime for the association. AMF symbiosis was influenced by cultivar (greater in 'China'), but tree age was not correlated to mycorrhizal association. A consortium of native species coupled with the understanding of nutrient effects on AMF would be useful for field application in litchi. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India).


Kumar R.,National Research Center on Litchi | Kumar V.,National Research Center on Litchi
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

The productivity as well as the quality of fruit crops is affected to a greater extent due to various physiological disorders. The extremes of environmental variables like temperature, moisture, light, aeration and nutritional imbalances result in disturbances in the plant metabolic activities leading to these disorders. While the symptoms may appear disease-like, they can usually be prevented by altering environmental conditions. In fruit crops, the deficiency of micronutrients causes many more disorders than that of macronutrients. These disorders have become widespread with diminishing use of organic manures, adoption of high density planting, use of rootstocks for dwarfing, disease and salt tolerance, unbalanced NPK fertilizer application and extension of horticulture to marginal lands. To get high quality fruit and yields, micronutrient deficiencies have to be detected before visual symptoms are expressed. This article presents a critical review on cause and characteristics of physiological disorders in important woody perennial fruit crops, viz. mango, litchi, guava, citrus, aonla, pomegranate, sapota, cashew, coconut, bael, ber and jackfruit, besides providing an insight into the gaps and researchable issues. The critical analysis of the nature, origin and causative factors of these non-pathogenic disorders will help in formulation of management strategies, reducing the loss to a significant level. © 2016, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.


Singh A.,National Research Center on Litchi | Singh A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Nath V.,National Research Center on Litchi
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

Litchi (Litchi chinensis) improvement has been sought mainly through the selection of improved clones and very little work has been done in planned breeding programmes. The economic importance of litchi has led to the selection and breeding over thousands of years, which resulted in relatively few genotypes because of narrow genetic base and restricted germplasm variability. The present day need in litchi is to have cultivars with high fruit weight, high pulp content and small/chicken-tongued seeds coupled with prolonged shelf-life. Therefore, surveys to select the desirable clones of litchi were conducted in the litchi growing areas of Asom and Tripura during the fruiting season of 2007-08 to 2011-12. The superior clones differing in fruit maturity period, with heavy bearing were selected and characterized. The fruit characteristics were studied in the selected clones, which have exhibited a wide range of variation. Based on the characterization of various physico-chemical parameters in fruits, thirty-nine clones were identified. The important clones identified for different characteristics having (i) higher fruit weight A26 (22.29g/fruit), A1l (21.75g/fruit) and A15 (21.21g/fruit), (ii) high TSS (T9 (20.88°Brix), A23 (20.16°Brix) and T5 (19.88°Brix), (iii) small seeds (A26 (1.18g/seed), A25 (1.37g/seed) and A27 (1.95g/seed) and (iv) high pulp percentage/edible portion A26 (72.96%), T15 (69.83%) and T14 (68.63%) were identified. Two clones, viz. A10-1 and A25, having five or more of the desirable fruit quality attributes and fourteen clones having four desirable fruit quality characteristics were propagated vegetatively for detailed evaluation. It was concluded from the present study that there is ample scope for selection of the desirable clones from the existing variability in the litchi orchards of Tripura and Asom.


Sharma S.,National Research Center on Litchi | Sharma R.R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2016

The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of staggered removal of cold stored (2 °C) plums at 7, 14 and 21 days interval and their subsequent treatment with salicylic acid (SA), nitric oxide (NO) and ethylene absorbent (EA) sachets. The fruit were then stored at supermarket conditions (20 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH) with the objective to know whether delayed EA, SA and NO treatments still have significant beneficial effects on the plum fruit quality. The observations on different physiological and biochemical parameters were taken at 2 days interval. The results showed that staggered treatments enhanced postharvest life and maintained fruit quality. We observed that SA-treated plums showed the highest fruit firmness and lowest decay losses when plums were either removed on 7th, 14th or 21st days of cold storage. Furthermore, SA-treated fruit exhibited lowest rates of respiration and ethylene evolution; phenylalanine ammonia lyase and pectin methyl esterase activities; minimum malondialdehyde content and lowest electrolyte leakage in comparison to those treated either with NO or packed with EA sachets or control fruit. In conclusion, 'Santa Rosa' plum removed after 7th (staggered-I), 14th (staggered-II) and 21st day (staggered-III) from cold storage maintained a shelf life of 10, 6 and 4 days, respectively at subsequent supermarket storage conditions. The overall results submit that even if the plums are not treated immediately or within few days after harvest and placed as such in cold store, they can be still treated with SA, NO or in-package ethylene absorbent (EA) treatment for beneficial postharvest influences. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Kumar V.,National Research Center on Litchi | Purbey S.K.,National Research Center on Litchi | Anal A.K.D.,National Research Center on Litchi
Crop Protection | Year: 2016

During May and June of 2012 and 2013, a study was conducted to assess losses at the farm, wholesale and retail levels in the supply chain of litchi in India. Changes in fruit quality parameters after harvest and the effectiveness of an improved corrugated fibre board (CFB) box versus conventional wooden box packaging to minimize postharvest losses were also studied. Farm-level samples were collected immediately after harvest from farmers' orchards in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state. Wholesale market samples were procured from the Delhi market, and retail samples from the Muzaffarpur and Delhi market. Real-time data on losses and quality parameters of fruits were recorded by transporting litchi from Muzaffarpur to Delhi (distance 1000 km) by truck. Studies indicated that the average loss (fruits discarded at sorting) apparent at the farm level during 2012 and 2013 was 30.4% and 25.8%, respectively. The average loss at the wholesale market level in Delhi was 15.8% and 12.4% during 2012 and 2013, respectively. The highest mean loss (up to 20.5%) was observed at the retail level. The mean fruit weight loss during transport to Delhi was 9.42% and 7.07% during 2012 and 2013, respectively. The mean total loss in the supply chain of litchi ranged from 35.3% to 43.8%. The total soluble solids, respiration and ethylene evolution in litchi fruits were found to increase after transport, whereas acidity and colour parameters (. L, a and b values) significantly decreased over time. The predominant pathogen associated with fruit decay was Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. CFB packaging significantly reduced various losses, thus indicating its effectiveness in its current use in non-refrigerated trucks for transport. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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