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Marboh E.S.,National Research Center on Litchi | Singh S.K.,National Research Center on Litchi | Pandey S.,National Research Center on Litchi | Nath V.,Research Scholar | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2017

Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.), an arillate fruit species of China origin, possessed a unique structure comprising thin and leathery pericarp that enclosed the aril as its edible part. Fruit cracking is a serious physiological disorder in litchi that occurs during its growth and development, and causes significant loss of economic yield. Fruit cracking in litchi coincides with a period characterized by high day temperature (35-40°C) and low relative humidity (60%). It entails the implicated roles of both internal and external factors. Besides climatic effects, abnormal development of the skin during early fruit growth promotes the disorder. In this context, a concept, ball skin versus bladder effect was theorized to describe the relationship between a pre-grown skin and a growing aril. To further conceptualize the problem, Zig-zag Unfolding model was developed which decipher the role of spongy tissue in pericarp extensibility necessary for preventing pericarp cracking. Cracking occurs during the final stage of fruit growth when the aril develops and exerts pressure on the inactively growing pericarp. Thus, a balance between turgor pressure from the expanding aril and the mechanical structure and elasticity of skin is indispensable to prevent fruit cracking. Fruit cracking can be controlled by application of calcium nitrate (0.5-1%), borax (0.4-0.8%), Zn (0.4%), GA3 (10 ppm) alone or in combinations assured with timely irrigation, mulching, bagging of fruit bunches, use of shade nets and growing cracking resistant cultivars.

Kumar A.,National Research Center on Litchi | Pandey S.D.,National Research Center on Litchi | Patel R.K.,National Research Center on Litchi | Srivastava K.,National Research Center on Litchi | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2017

An experiment was conducted during 2014 and 2015 to study the effect of varied extent of girdling for induction of flowering in litchi (Litchi chinensis sonn.) under Bihar condition. Results indicated that circular girdling of 2mm on 50% primary branches produced more flowering panicle, fruit yield, fruit size, TSS, and TSS/acid ratio in Shahi litchi trees compared to ungirdle (control) trees. Findings also revealed that the wound healing duration of girdled portion increases with increasing the size of girdling notch. The average yields from all girdled treatments were about three to five times higher than control. Gradual decrease in fruit weight was noticed with increase of girdling size in both 25% PB and 50% PB. TSS and TSS/ acid ratio showed decreasing trend while acidity and ascorbic acid content of the fruit showed increasing trend with increase in level of girdling width. All girdled shoots showed more accumulation of carbohydrate in leaves than control. Among the girdled branches, gradual increase in leaf carbohydrate and C/N ratio content and decrease in nitrogen content observed with increase in level of girdling but the nitrogen content of bark showed the reverse trend.

Gupta A.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Solanki I.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Bashyal B.M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh Y.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Srivastava K.,National Research Center on Litchi
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2015

Bakanae or foot rot disease caused by Fusarium fujikuroi Nirenberg is an important emerging disease of rice across the world. It is responsible for high yield losses ranging from 3.0-95.4% and its incidence varies with regions and cultivars grown. It is one of the emerging problems in rice, particularly in basmati/scented rice in India during recent years and becoming more serious threat to sustainable rice production in other parts of the rice growing world. Currently, seed treatment with fungicides is the most important disease management strategy used worldwide after the use of resistant varieties. Various aspects of the disease covering history, significance, pathogen survival, variability to genomics and management issues that will be useful for researchers and other stakeholders to bring fruitful research on yield loss assessment, epidemiology, host-pathogen interaction, racial profiling, decision support system and integrated sustainable disease management practices which are still lacking about the disease have been discussed in greater detail. © 2015, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All rights reserved.

Barman K.,Tilka Manjhi Bhagalpur University | Sharma S.,National Research Center on Litchi | Patel V.B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Asrey R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

High post-harvest losses in fresh horticultural produce and the increasing apprehensions among the consumers for harmful chemical residues have made it imperative for researchers to find safe, novel and natural techniques to achieve augmentation in shelf-life without having any detrimental influence on human health. Nitrous oxide, commonly known as "Laughing gas" is a naturally occurring colourless and non-flammable atmospheric gas. In the recent past, several researchers have documented that nitrous oxide gas inhibits ethylene production as well as action in freshly harvested fruits and vegetables. It also exhibits high potential in inhibiting fungal growth and decay, consequently reducing post-harvest losses due to diseases. Owing to its non-toxic nature, nitrous oxide can be potentially used to delay ripening and senescence of fresh horticultural produce during post-harvest storage and to assure food safety. In the present review, we have mainly focused on various effects of nitrous oxide on postharvest decay, ethylene biosynthesis and its action, respiration and other physico-chemical attributes of fruits and vegetables. Post-harvest application of nitrous oxide may open up various opportunities for its commercial use to prolong storage and marketability of fresh horticultural produce.

Kumar R.,National Research Center on Litchi
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

The present study was undertaken at the National Research Centre on Litchi, Muzaffarpur, Bihar for two consecutive years 2011-12 and 2012-13 in the young bearing litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) orchard of cv. Shahi to see the effect of shoot tip pruning and de-flushing on reproductive behaviour and fruit yield in litchi. This study confirmed the treatment of shoot tip pruning in mid June evoked maximum number of panicles (41.8% during 2011, 50.5% during 2012-13), causing maximum phase change under the annual production cycle, leading to maximum flowering (860.8 and 1004.3 nos./panicle) with moderately higher fruit set (2.11 % and 4.22%) and highest fruit yield (19.4 kg/tree and 31.9 kg/tree), the pronounced effect recorded when treatment of flush removal applied during mid November, which bore maximum number of panicles (47.3% during 2011-12, 64.3% during 2012-13), maximum flowering (1110.0 nos and 898.5 nos of flowers/panicle) with moderately higher fruit set (3.17% and 4.14 %) and highest fruit yield (25.5 kg/tree and 27.9 kg/tree) in litchi during both the years. Shoot tip pruning in late summer (mid July and mid August) and flush removal in December had virtually poor crop yield since most of the de-flushed branches did not projected a flush of either type of vegetative or reproductive growth before the normal time of even panicle emergence. The study also showed that the age of the previous flush modifies with the cool-temperatureinduced floral response during winter season, while older stems exhibited a higher percentage of reproductive growth by phase change in the form of panicle emergence. The operation of flush removal in mid October displayed only a higher percentage of a vegetative growth and while de-flushing in December projected no growth or if any only vegetative nature. The treatment having pruning in mid June and practice of uniform size and aged (5-8cm) flush removal in the month of November (mid) exposed to low temperature under the conditions of north Bihar leading to highest fruit yield (37.75 kg/tree) and better quality fruits (38.42 % under extra class) with minimum wastage.

Kumar V.,National Research Center on Litchi | Kumar R.,National Research Center on Litchi | Anal A.K.D.,National Research Center on Litchi
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2016

Abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in association with litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) trees were studied during 2012-2013, where orchard soil had high pH (7.42-9.53) and salinity (0.07-0.39 dSm-1). A total of 105 rhizospheric soil and root samples were collected considering variables like location, age of tree, cultivar and production management. Results showed that spore count was in the range of 1-22 g soil. All the examined root segments had colonization of AMF, which ranged between 3.3 to 90.0%. AMF community comprised of Glomus mosseae, G. intaradices, G. constricta, G. coronatum, G.fasciculatum, G. albidum, G. hoi, G. multicauli, Acaulospora scrobiculata, A. laevis, Rhizophagus litchi and Entrophosphora infrequens. Higher spore density and AMF colonization were observed at medium level (13-28 kg ha) of available phosphorus that decreased ('r' = -0.21 for spore density, -0.48 for root colonization) with increasing soil phosphorus. While nitrogen did not influence the AMF association, a weak negative linear relationship with AMF colonization ('r'= -0.30) was apparent in the medium level (112-200 kg ha-1) of potash. Micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn and B) did not affect spore density (zero or a very weak linear correlation) but influenced root colonization ('r'= - 0.53 to -0.44), the effect being more prominent above critical limits. Nutritionally sufficient, irrigated litchi orchards had greater spore count (46% samples having 5-22 spores g-1 soil) and colonization (>50% in 37.4% roots examined) than nutrient deficient, non-irrigated orchards, indicating essentiality of a threshold nutrients and moisture regime for the association. AMF symbiosis was influenced by cultivar (greater in 'China'), but tree age was not correlated to mycorrhizal association. A consortium of native species coupled with the understanding of nutrient effects on AMF would be useful for field application in litchi. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India).

Kumar R.,National Research Center on Litchi | Kumar V.,National Research Center on Litchi
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

The productivity as well as the quality of fruit crops is affected to a greater extent due to various physiological disorders. The extremes of environmental variables like temperature, moisture, light, aeration and nutritional imbalances result in disturbances in the plant metabolic activities leading to these disorders. While the symptoms may appear disease-like, they can usually be prevented by altering environmental conditions. In fruit crops, the deficiency of micronutrients causes many more disorders than that of macronutrients. These disorders have become widespread with diminishing use of organic manures, adoption of high density planting, use of rootstocks for dwarfing, disease and salt tolerance, unbalanced NPK fertilizer application and extension of horticulture to marginal lands. To get high quality fruit and yields, micronutrient deficiencies have to be detected before visual symptoms are expressed. This article presents a critical review on cause and characteristics of physiological disorders in important woody perennial fruit crops, viz. mango, litchi, guava, citrus, aonla, pomegranate, sapota, cashew, coconut, bael, ber and jackfruit, besides providing an insight into the gaps and researchable issues. The critical analysis of the nature, origin and causative factors of these non-pathogenic disorders will help in formulation of management strategies, reducing the loss to a significant level. © 2016, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.

Singh A.,National Research Center on Litchi | Singh A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Nath V.,National Research Center on Litchi
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

Litchi (Litchi chinensis) improvement has been sought mainly through the selection of improved clones and very little work has been done in planned breeding programmes. The economic importance of litchi has led to the selection and breeding over thousands of years, which resulted in relatively few genotypes because of narrow genetic base and restricted germplasm variability. The present day need in litchi is to have cultivars with high fruit weight, high pulp content and small/chicken-tongued seeds coupled with prolonged shelf-life. Therefore, surveys to select the desirable clones of litchi were conducted in the litchi growing areas of Asom and Tripura during the fruiting season of 2007-08 to 2011-12. The superior clones differing in fruit maturity period, with heavy bearing were selected and characterized. The fruit characteristics were studied in the selected clones, which have exhibited a wide range of variation. Based on the characterization of various physico-chemical parameters in fruits, thirty-nine clones were identified. The important clones identified for different characteristics having (i) higher fruit weight A26 (22.29g/fruit), A1l (21.75g/fruit) and A15 (21.21g/fruit), (ii) high TSS (T9 (20.88°Brix), A23 (20.16°Brix) and T5 (19.88°Brix), (iii) small seeds (A26 (1.18g/seed), A25 (1.37g/seed) and A27 (1.95g/seed) and (iv) high pulp percentage/edible portion A26 (72.96%), T15 (69.83%) and T14 (68.63%) were identified. Two clones, viz. A10-1 and A25, having five or more of the desirable fruit quality attributes and fourteen clones having four desirable fruit quality characteristics were propagated vegetatively for detailed evaluation. It was concluded from the present study that there is ample scope for selection of the desirable clones from the existing variability in the litchi orchards of Tripura and Asom.

Sharma S.,National Research Center on Litchi | Sharma R.R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2016

The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of staggered removal of cold stored (2 °C) plums at 7, 14 and 21 days interval and their subsequent treatment with salicylic acid (SA), nitric oxide (NO) and ethylene absorbent (EA) sachets. The fruit were then stored at supermarket conditions (20 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH) with the objective to know whether delayed EA, SA and NO treatments still have significant beneficial effects on the plum fruit quality. The observations on different physiological and biochemical parameters were taken at 2 days interval. The results showed that staggered treatments enhanced postharvest life and maintained fruit quality. We observed that SA-treated plums showed the highest fruit firmness and lowest decay losses when plums were either removed on 7th, 14th or 21st days of cold storage. Furthermore, SA-treated fruit exhibited lowest rates of respiration and ethylene evolution; phenylalanine ammonia lyase and pectin methyl esterase activities; minimum malondialdehyde content and lowest electrolyte leakage in comparison to those treated either with NO or packed with EA sachets or control fruit. In conclusion, 'Santa Rosa' plum removed after 7th (staggered-I), 14th (staggered-II) and 21st day (staggered-III) from cold storage maintained a shelf life of 10, 6 and 4 days, respectively at subsequent supermarket storage conditions. The overall results submit that even if the plums are not treated immediately or within few days after harvest and placed as such in cold store, they can be still treated with SA, NO or in-package ethylene absorbent (EA) treatment for beneficial postharvest influences. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Kumar V.,National Research Center on Litchi | Purbey S.K.,National Research Center on Litchi | Anal A.K.D.,National Research Center on Litchi
Crop Protection | Year: 2016

During May and June of 2012 and 2013, a study was conducted to assess losses at the farm, wholesale and retail levels in the supply chain of litchi in India. Changes in fruit quality parameters after harvest and the effectiveness of an improved corrugated fibre board (CFB) box versus conventional wooden box packaging to minimize postharvest losses were also studied. Farm-level samples were collected immediately after harvest from farmers' orchards in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state. Wholesale market samples were procured from the Delhi market, and retail samples from the Muzaffarpur and Delhi market. Real-time data on losses and quality parameters of fruits were recorded by transporting litchi from Muzaffarpur to Delhi (distance 1000 km) by truck. Studies indicated that the average loss (fruits discarded at sorting) apparent at the farm level during 2012 and 2013 was 30.4% and 25.8%, respectively. The average loss at the wholesale market level in Delhi was 15.8% and 12.4% during 2012 and 2013, respectively. The highest mean loss (up to 20.5%) was observed at the retail level. The mean fruit weight loss during transport to Delhi was 9.42% and 7.07% during 2012 and 2013, respectively. The mean total loss in the supply chain of litchi ranged from 35.3% to 43.8%. The total soluble solids, respiration and ethylene evolution in litchi fruits were found to increase after transport, whereas acidity and colour parameters (. L, a and b values) significantly decreased over time. The predominant pathogen associated with fruit decay was Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. CFB packaging significantly reduced various losses, thus indicating its effectiveness in its current use in non-refrigerated trucks for transport. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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