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Gupta A.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Solanki I.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Bashyal B.M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh Y.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Srivastava K.,National Research Center on Litchi
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences

Bakanae or foot rot disease caused by Fusarium fujikuroi Nirenberg is an important emerging disease of rice across the world. It is responsible for high yield losses ranging from 3.0-95.4% and its incidence varies with regions and cultivars grown. It is one of the emerging problems in rice, particularly in basmati/scented rice in India during recent years and becoming more serious threat to sustainable rice production in other parts of the rice growing world. Currently, seed treatment with fungicides is the most important disease management strategy used worldwide after the use of resistant varieties. Various aspects of the disease covering history, significance, pathogen survival, variability to genomics and management issues that will be useful for researchers and other stakeholders to bring fruitful research on yield loss assessment, epidemiology, host-pathogen interaction, racial profiling, decision support system and integrated sustainable disease management practices which are still lacking about the disease have been discussed in greater detail. © 2015, Pakistan Agricultural Scientists Forum. All rights reserved. Source

The present study was undertaken at the National Research Centre on Litchi, Muzaffarpur, Bihar for two consecutive years 2011-12 and 2012-13 in the young bearing litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) orchard of cv. Shahi to see the effect of shoot tip pruning and de-flushing on reproductive behaviour and fruit yield in litchi. This study confirmed the treatment of shoot tip pruning in mid June evoked maximum number of panicles (41.8% during 2011, 50.5% during 2012-13), causing maximum phase change under the annual production cycle, leading to maximum flowering (860.8 and 1004.3 nos./panicle) with moderately higher fruit set (2.11 % and 4.22%) and highest fruit yield (19.4 kg/tree and 31.9 kg/tree), the pronounced effect recorded when treatment of flush removal applied during mid November, which bore maximum number of panicles (47.3% during 2011-12, 64.3% during 2012-13), maximum flowering (1110.0 nos and 898.5 nos of flowers/panicle) with moderately higher fruit set (3.17% and 4.14 %) and highest fruit yield (25.5 kg/tree and 27.9 kg/tree) in litchi during both the years. Shoot tip pruning in late summer (mid July and mid August) and flush removal in December had virtually poor crop yield since most of the de-flushed branches did not projected a flush of either type of vegetative or reproductive growth before the normal time of even panicle emergence. The study also showed that the age of the previous flush modifies with the cool-temperatureinduced floral response during winter season, while older stems exhibited a higher percentage of reproductive growth by phase change in the form of panicle emergence. The operation of flush removal in mid October displayed only a higher percentage of a vegetative growth and while de-flushing in December projected no growth or if any only vegetative nature. The treatment having pruning in mid June and practice of uniform size and aged (5-8cm) flush removal in the month of November (mid) exposed to low temperature under the conditions of north Bihar leading to highest fruit yield (37.75 kg/tree) and better quality fruits (38.42 % under extra class) with minimum wastage. Source

Barman K.,Tilka Manjhi Bhagalpur University | Sharma S.,National Research Center on Litchi | Patel V.B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Asrey R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences

High post-harvest losses in fresh horticultural produce and the increasing apprehensions among the consumers for harmful chemical residues have made it imperative for researchers to find safe, novel and natural techniques to achieve augmentation in shelf-life without having any detrimental influence on human health. Nitrous oxide, commonly known as "Laughing gas" is a naturally occurring colourless and non-flammable atmospheric gas. In the recent past, several researchers have documented that nitrous oxide gas inhibits ethylene production as well as action in freshly harvested fruits and vegetables. It also exhibits high potential in inhibiting fungal growth and decay, consequently reducing post-harvest losses due to diseases. Owing to its non-toxic nature, nitrous oxide can be potentially used to delay ripening and senescence of fresh horticultural produce during post-harvest storage and to assure food safety. In the present review, we have mainly focused on various effects of nitrous oxide on postharvest decay, ethylene biosynthesis and its action, respiration and other physico-chemical attributes of fruits and vegetables. Post-harvest application of nitrous oxide may open up various opportunities for its commercial use to prolong storage and marketability of fresh horticultural produce. Source

Sharma S.,National Research Center on Litchi | Sharma R.R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Scientia Horticulturae

The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of staggered removal of cold stored (2 °C) plums at 7, 14 and 21 days interval and their subsequent treatment with salicylic acid (SA), nitric oxide (NO) and ethylene absorbent (EA) sachets. The fruit were then stored at supermarket conditions (20 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH) with the objective to know whether delayed EA, SA and NO treatments still have significant beneficial effects on the plum fruit quality. The observations on different physiological and biochemical parameters were taken at 2 days interval. The results showed that staggered treatments enhanced postharvest life and maintained fruit quality. We observed that SA-treated plums showed the highest fruit firmness and lowest decay losses when plums were either removed on 7th, 14th or 21st days of cold storage. Furthermore, SA-treated fruit exhibited lowest rates of respiration and ethylene evolution; phenylalanine ammonia lyase and pectin methyl esterase activities; minimum malondialdehyde content and lowest electrolyte leakage in comparison to those treated either with NO or packed with EA sachets or control fruit. In conclusion, 'Santa Rosa' plum removed after 7th (staggered-I), 14th (staggered-II) and 21st day (staggered-III) from cold storage maintained a shelf life of 10, 6 and 4 days, respectively at subsequent supermarket storage conditions. The overall results submit that even if the plums are not treated immediately or within few days after harvest and placed as such in cold store, they can be still treated with SA, NO or in-package ethylene absorbent (EA) treatment for beneficial postharvest influences. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Singh A.,National Research Center on Litchi | Singh A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Nath V.,National Research Center on Litchi
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Litchi (Litchi chinensis) improvement has been sought mainly through the selection of improved clones and very little work has been done in planned breeding programmes. The economic importance of litchi has led to the selection and breeding over thousands of years, which resulted in relatively few genotypes because of narrow genetic base and restricted germplasm variability. The present day need in litchi is to have cultivars with high fruit weight, high pulp content and small/chicken-tongued seeds coupled with prolonged shelf-life. Therefore, surveys to select the desirable clones of litchi were conducted in the litchi growing areas of Asom and Tripura during the fruiting season of 2007-08 to 2011-12. The superior clones differing in fruit maturity period, with heavy bearing were selected and characterized. The fruit characteristics were studied in the selected clones, which have exhibited a wide range of variation. Based on the characterization of various physico-chemical parameters in fruits, thirty-nine clones were identified. The important clones identified for different characteristics having (i) higher fruit weight A26 (22.29g/fruit), A1l (21.75g/fruit) and A15 (21.21g/fruit), (ii) high TSS (T9 (20.88°Brix), A23 (20.16°Brix) and T5 (19.88°Brix), (iii) small seeds (A26 (1.18g/seed), A25 (1.37g/seed) and A27 (1.95g/seed) and (iv) high pulp percentage/edible portion A26 (72.96%), T15 (69.83%) and T14 (68.63%) were identified. Two clones, viz. A10-1 and A25, having five or more of the desirable fruit quality attributes and fourteen clones having four desirable fruit quality characteristics were propagated vegetatively for detailed evaluation. It was concluded from the present study that there is ample scope for selection of the desirable clones from the existing variability in the litchi orchards of Tripura and Asom. Source

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