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Pashenkov M.V.,Corus Farm Ltd | Popilyuk S.F.,Corus Farm Ltd | Alkhazova B.I.,Corus Farm Ltd | L'vov V.L.,Corus Farm Ltd | And 4 more authors.
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2010

Bacterial peptidoglycan and its muropeptide derivatives potently activate mammalian innate immune system and are promising immunomodulators and vaccine adjuvants. However, their effects on human antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs) and Mphi, are not fully understood. Lysozyme treatment of PG from Salmonella typhi yielded three muropeptides, GlcNAc-MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoGlu-meso-DAP (GM-3P), GlcNAc-MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoGlu-meso-DAP-D-Ala (GM-4P), and a dimer (GM-4P)2, in which two GM-4P monomers are linked through their peptidic moieties. All three muropeptides induced TNF-α and IL-6 production by Mphi (GM-3P>GM-4P>>(GM-4P)2), but failed to trigger TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12p70 production by immature DCs. At the same time, muropeptide-stimulated DCs abundantly produced inflammatory chemokines IL-8, MIP-1α and MIP-1β, as well as displayed signs of phenotypic and functional maturation. Thus, muropeptide-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine production is repressed in DCs. While this defect may be partly compensated in vivo by muropeptide-activated Mphi, neither Mphi nor DCs produce Th1- or Th17-polarizing cytokines upon muropeptide stimulation, which may contribute to the preferential induction of Th2 responses by muropeptides and should be taken into account when designing muropeptide-based immunomodulators and adjuvants. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Andreev S.M.,National Research Center Institute of Immunology | Purgina D.D.,National Research Center Institute of Immunology | Bashkatova E.N.,National Research Center Institute of Immunology | Garshev A.V.,Moscow State University | And 2 more authors.
Nanotechnologies in Russia | Year: 2014

Aqueous solutions of the fullerene C60 (nC60) were prepared by simple mixing of the solution of C60 in N-methylpyrrolidone (MP) with deionized water or an aqueous solution of a low-molecular-weight natural substance (L-amino acids, monosaccharides, peptides, or glycerol) used as stabilizing agents (SAs) followed by exhaustive dialysis against distilled water. During dialysis, all low-molecular-weight compounds are removed through the pores and the fullerene clusters remain in the solution. The efficiency of conversion of C60 from the crystalline state to the solution approaches the quantitative value, and solutions with a C60 concentration of up to 250 mg/L can be obtained; moreover, these solutions are stable for at least 10-12 months. The formation of insoluble aggregates has been observed when basic and acidic organic compounds were used as SA. The UV-VIS spectra of solutions have a profile characteristic of nC60 solutions obtained by other well-known procedures (maxima at 220, 265, 340, and 450 nm). Mass spectra of aqueous solutions and FTIR spectra of dried nC60 samples were indicative of the possible partial hydroxylation of the fullerene. A measurement of the sizes and ξ potential of the C60 particles in solutions by the dynamic light scattering method showed that their average diameter is about 100 nm and the charge is -30 mV, whereas the electron microscopy data demonstrated that the particles have a typical size of approximately 20 nm and contain both crystalline and amorphous phases. The proposed method is promising for the preparation of solutions of endofullerenes and, probably, higher fullerenes. © 2014 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

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