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Sushilkumar,National Research Center for Weed Science | Ray P.,National Research Center for Weed Science
Crop Protection | Year: 2011

Augmentative release of biocontrol agents has been largely successful for the management of insect pests but it has not been a common approach for weed management. Augmentation methods need to be developed for weed management, especially for pernicious weeds like Parthenium hysterophorus L., commonly known as pathenium or carrot weed. The leaf beetle Zygogramma bicolorata is a potential biocontrol agent of P hysterophorus. Initial release of biocontrol agents is subject to uncertainties as to whether timely population built-up will take place in sufficient numbers. Several augmentative releases may be required to ensure early establishment of the biocontrol agents, for successful biological control of noxious weeds including pathenium. We made augmentative releases of larvae or adults of Z. bicolorata each to three sites, severely infested with pathenium at Jabalpur, India consecutively for a period of three years. Initially 10 larvae or adults per sq m were released in each plot, followed by a second, third and fourth release of 3, 1.5 and 1.5 larvae or adults per sq m at an intervals of 3, 7 and 14 days after the first augmentation. The pathenium at augmented sites were completely defoliated in 45 and 60 days by larvae and adults respectively. There was also a reduction in the pathenium density and plant height in the augmented sites as compared to the non-augmented sites. Over a period of 3 years augmentation resulted in a noteworthy negative effect on the weed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Sondhia S.,National Research Center for Weed Science
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2010

A field study was conducted to determine persistence and bioaccumulation of oxyflorfen residues in onion crop at two growth stages. Oxyfluorfen (23.5% EC) was sprayed at 250 and 500 g ai/ha on the crop (variety, N53). Mature onion and soil samples were collected at harvest. Green onion were collected at 55 days from each treated and control plot and analyzed for oxyfluorfen residues by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with an accepted recovery of 78-92% at the minimum detectable concentration of 0.003 μg g -1. Analysis showed 0.015 and 0.005 μg g-1 residues of oxyfluorfen at 250 g a.i. ha-1 rate in green and mature onion samples, respectively; however, at 500 g a.i.ha-1 rates, 0.025 and 0.011 μg g-1 of oxyfluorfen residues were detected in green and mature onion samples, respectively. Soil samples collected at harvest showed 0.003 and 0.003 μg g-1 of oxyfluorfen residues at the doses 250 and 500 g a.i. ha-1, respectively. From the study, a pre-harvest interval of 118 days for onion crop after the herbicide application is suggested. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


PubMed | National Research Center for Weed Science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2010

A field study was conducted to determine persistence and bioaccumulation of oxyflorfen residues in onion crop at two growth stages. Oxyfluorfen (23.5% EC) was sprayed at 250 and 500 g ai/ha on the crop (variety, N53). Mature onion and soil samples were collected at harvest. Green onion were collected at 55 days from each treated and control plot and analyzed for oxyfluorfen residues by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with an accepted recovery of 78-92% at the minimum detectable concentration of 0.003 microg g(-1). Analysis showed 0.015 and 0.005 microg g(-1) residues of oxyfluorfen at 250 g a.i. ha(-1) rate in green and mature onion samples, respectively; however, at 500 g a.i.ha(-1) rates, 0.025 and 0.011 microg g(-1) of oxyfluorfen residues were detected in green and mature onion samples, respectively. Soil samples collected at harvest showed 0.003 and 0.003 microg g(-1) of oxyfluorfen residues at the doses 250 and 500 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. From the study, a pre-harvest interval of 118 days for onion crop after the herbicide application is suggested.


Sushilkumar,National Research Center for Weed Science | Ray P.,National Research Center for Weed Science
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Diapause is a unique strategy of dormancy in insects to avoid unfavourable conditions. The exotic beetle Zygogramma bicolorata, is an effective biological control agent of Parthenium hysterophorus in India, Adults diapause in soil during December to May. As a result, there is delay in its effectiveness on the plant that reaches to flowering and seed production by the time the beetle is able to build up its population after emerging from diapause. Therefore, a study was conducted to explore possibilities of diapause aversion by temperature regulation. Results indicated that exposure of newly emerged adults to heat treatment of 35°C and to low temperature of 10°C could reduce diapause in Z. bicolorata. The low temperature can also be used as a medium for the storage of the mass reared beetles for a long time without having negative effect on their longevity and fecundity. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


PubMed | National Research Center for Weed Science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of chemical ecology | Year: 2013

The allelopathic effect of parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) leaf residue (dry leaf powder, DLP) on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart Solms.) was studied. The treatment caused wilting starting from the margins of the older leaves and desiccation of above-water plant parts (shoot). Appearance, persistence, and disappearance of symptoms depended on the level and duration of the treatment and recovery of the treated plants, if it occurred. The treatment drastically reduced the number of healthy leaves (HLN) and the plant biomass at 0.25% (w/v) DLP; the treated plants recovered in about one month. At and above 0.50% (w/v) DLP, the plants were killed in about one month, resulting in sinking of the dead mass in water. Physiological effects of the treatment included deterioration of membrane integrity, loss of dehydrogenase activity with concurrent drastic reduction or total failure of water absorption by the roots, and reduction of chlorophyll contents in the leaves. The results indicate that the inhibitors leached out of the DLP affected the water hyacinth plants through changes in macromolecules: protein, lipid, and nucleic acid, resulting in root dysfunction and other inhibitory activities both in the root and shoot. Phenolic and other inhibitors including those found in the parthenium plant (except sesquiterpene lactones which have not been tested) at 50 ppm, exceptp-hydroxybenzoic acid, did not affect the treated plants. Such a high concentration of the allelochemicals is unlikely to be present in the medium at the lethal dose (0.50% w/v) of the DLP. Even withp-hydroxybenzoic acid, the plants recovered subsequently and grew normally. Thus, it appears that other allelochemicals including sesquiterpene lactones were mainly responsible for the inhibitory activity of the DLP on water hyacinth plants.

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