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Petersen C.B.,University of Southern Denmark | Eriksen L.,University of Southern Denmark | Tolstrup J.S.,University of Southern Denmark | Sogaard K.,University of Southern Denmark | And 2 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: Occupational heavy lifting is known to impose a high cardiovascular strain, but the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) from occupational heavy lifting is unknown. The objective was to investigate the association between occupational heavy lifting and risk of IHD and all-cause mortality, and the influence of occupational and leisure time physical activity on this association. Methods. Data were analyzed from 1987, 1994, and 2000 from the Danish National Health Interview Surveys providing a sample of 6,692 working men and 5,921 working women aged 16-85 years without cardiovascular disease at baseline. Conventional risk factors for the outcomes IHD and all-cause mortality were controlled for in Cox analyses. Results: Among men, heavy lifting was associated with increased risk for IHD (hazard ratio (HR): 1.52, 95% Confidence interval (95% CI): 1.15, 2.02), while a decreased risk was associated with occupational (HR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.68) and leisure time (HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.95) physical activity. Referencing men with high occupational physical activity and no heavy lifting, men with high occupational physical activity and heavy lifting did not have an increased risk (HR: 1.11, 95% CI:0.68, 1.82), while men with low occupational physical activity and heavy lifting had a substantial increased risk (HR: 2.56, 95% CI:1.52, 4.32). No significant associations were found for all-cause mortality or for females. Conclusion: These findings indicate an excessive risk for IHD from occupational heavy lifting among men, particularly among those with low occupational and leisure time physical activity. © 2012 Petersen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Guldenmund F.,Technical University of Delft | Cleal B.,National Research Center for the Working Environment | Mearns K.,University of Aberdeen
Safety Science | Year: 2013

An exploratory study was carried out in three European countries - Denmark, United Kingdom and the Netherlands - concerning the safety of migrant workers, especially those coming from Eastern European countries. Special attention was given to the relationship between safety and the national background of migrant workers. Forty-four interviews with HSE experts - e.g. regulators, union representatives - in the three countries, a survey using the NOSACQ-50 safety climate questionnaire and an accident data analysis using Danish data have been combined to draw a picture of the situation of migrant workers in the three countries. Although much data is still anecdotal it is concluded that these workers form a vulnerable group. As long as many migrant workers remain unregistered in the country where they work and national accident databases are not sufficiently or systematically coded, the magnitude of the migrant worker problem remains largely elusive. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Pedersen J.,National Research Center for the Working Environment | Gerds T.A.,Copenhagen University | Bjorner J.B.,National Research Center for the Working Environment | Bjorner J.B.,Copenhagen University | Christensen K.B.,Copenhagen University
BMC Public Health | Year: 2014

Background: Targeted interventions for the long-term sick-listed may prevent permanent exclusion from the labour force. We aimed to develop a prediction method for identifying high risk groups for continued or recurrent long-term sickness absence, unemployment, or disability among persons on long-term sick leave. Methods. We obtained individual characteristics and follow-up data from the Danish Register of Sickness Absence Compensation Benefits and Social Transfer Payments (RSS) during 2004 to 2010 for 189,279 Danes who experienced a period of long-term sickness absence (4+ weeks). In a learning data set, statistical prediction methods were built using logistic regression and a discrete event simulation approach for a one year prediction horizon. Personalized risk profiles were obtained for five outcomes: employment, unemployment, recurrent sickness absence, continuous long-term sickness absence, and early retirement from the labour market. Predictor variables included gender, age, socio-economic position, job type, chronic disease status, history of sickness absence, and prior history of unemployment. Separate models were built for times of economic growth (2005-2007) and times of recession (2008-2010). The accuracy of the prediction models was assessed with analyses of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and the Brier score in an independent validation data set. Results: In comparison with a null model which ignored the predictor variables, logistic regression achieved only moderate prediction accuracy for the five outcome states. Results obtained with discrete event simulation were comparable with logistic regression. Conclusions: Only moderate prediction accuracy could be achieved using the selected information from the Danish register RSS. Other variables need to be included in order to establish a prediction method which provides more accurate risk profiles for long-term sick-listed persons. © 2014 Pedersen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Geraets L.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Oomen A.G.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Krystek P.,HIGH-TECH | Jacobsen N.R.,National Research Center for the Working Environment | And 5 more authors.
Particle and Fibre Toxicology | Year: 2014

Objective: The aim of this study was to obtain kinetic data that can be used in human risk assessment of titanium dioxide nanomaterials.Methods: Tissue distribution and blood kinetics of various titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NM-100, NM-101, NM-102, NM-103, and NM-104), which differ with respect to primary particle size, crystalline form and hydrophobicity, were investigated in rats up to 90 days post-exposure after oral and intravenous administration of a single or five repeated doses.Results: For the oral study, liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes were selected as target tissues for titanium (Ti) analysis. Ti-levels in liver and spleen were above the detection limit only in some rats. Titanium could be detected at low levels in mesenteric lymph nodes. These results indicate that some minor absorption occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, but to a very limited extent.Both after single and repeated intravenous (IV) exposure, titanium rapidly distributed from the systemic circulation to all tissues evaluated (i.e. liver, spleen, kidney, lung, heart, brain, thymus, reproductive organs). Liver was identified as the main target tissue, followed by spleen and lung. Total recovery (expressed as % of nominal dose) for all four tested nanomaterials measured 24 h after single or repeated exposure ranged from 64-95% or 59-108% for male or female animals, respectively. During the 90 days post-exposure period, some decrease in Ti-levels was observed (mainly for NM-100 and NM-102) with a maximum relative decrease of 26%. This was also confirmed by the results of the kinetic analysis which revealed that for each of the investigated tissues the half-lifes were considerable (range 28-650 days, depending on the TiO2-particle and tissue investigated). Minor differences in kinetic profile were observed between the various particles, though these could not be clearly related to differences in primary particle size or hydrophobicity. Some indications were observed for an effect of crystalline form (anatase vs. rutile) on total Ti recovery.Conclusion: Overall, the results of the present oral and IV study indicates very low oral bioavailability and slow tissue elimination. Limited uptake in combination with slow elimination might result in the long run in potential tissue accumulation. © 2014 Geraets et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Calatayud J.,National Research Center for the Working Environment | Calatayud J.,University of Valencia | Jakobsen M.D.,National Research Center for the Working Environment | Jakobsen M.D.,University of Southern Denmark | And 5 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

Introduction: Regular physical activity is important for longevity and health, but knowledge about the optimal dose of physical activity for maintaining good work ability is unknown. This study investigates the association between intensity and duration of physical activity during leisure time and work ability in relation to physical demands of the job. Methods: From the 2010 round of the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study, currently employed wage earners with physically demanding work (n = 2952) replied to questions about work, lifestyle and health. Excellent (100 points), very good (75 points), good (50 points), fair (25 points) and poor (0 points) work ability in relation to the physical demands of the job was experienced by 18%, 40%, 30%, 10% and 2% of the respondents, respectively. Results: General linear models that controlled for gender, age, physical and psychosocial work factors, lifestyle and chronic disease showed that the duration of high-intensity physical activity during leisure was positively associated with work ability, in a dose-response fashion (p < 0.001). Those performing ≥ 5 hours of high-intensity physical activity per week had on average 8 points higher work ability than those not performing such activities. The duration of low-intensity leisure-time physical activity was not associated with work ability (p = 0.5668). Conclusions: The duration of high-intensity physical activity during leisure time is associated in a dose-response fashion with work ability, in workers with physically demanding jobs. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health. Source

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