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Rajendra Nagar, India

Boomiraj K.,Agricultural Research Sataion | Marimuthu S.,Agricultural Research Sataion | Wanp S.P.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Ravikumar S.,National Research Center for Sorghum | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agrometeorology | Year: 2012

This paper presents results of Info Crop model evaluation in terms of its validation, sensitivity impact and adaptation of sorghum to climate change in semi arid tropics (SAT) regions of India. The model has reasonably predicted phenology, crop growth yield. Sorghum crop was found to be sensitive to changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature. Future climate change scenario analysis showed that sorghum yields are likely to reduce at Akola, Anantpur, Coimbatore and Bijapur. At Kota the sorghum yield is likely to increase at 2020 and no change at 2050 and yield will reduce at 2080. The increase in yield at Gwalior and Kota at 2020 is due to reduction in maximum temperature and increase in rainfall from current. Adoption of adaptation measure like one irrigation (50mm) at 40-45 days after sowing would be better adaptation strategies for rainfed kharif sorghum with existing varieties in the selected location of the SAT regions.

DeLacy I.H.,University of Queensland | Kaul S.,National Research Center for Sorghum | Rana B.S.,National Research Center for Sorghum | Cooper M.,DuPont Pioneer
Field Crops Research | Year: 2010

Grain and stover yield are key traits for the improvement of rabi sorghum varieties and hybrids in India. Large genotype-by-environment interactions (GEI) were identified for both grain and stover yield based on 10 years' data available from the All India Coordinated Sorghum Improvement Program (AICSIP) experiments conducted from 1986/87 to 1996/97. From the estimates of the genotypic, GEI and residual components of variance for the four traits, a multi-environment testing strategy based on 15-20 locations, 2-3 years, and two replicates per trial would be required to achieve estimates of repeatability of approximately 0.70 for grain yield, 0.45 for stover yield, 0.70 for flowering time, and 0.85 for plant height.The results of these experiments indicate that over the 10-year period there was little genetic progress demonstrated for both yield traits and greater grain yields were associated with earlier flowering and greater stover yields were associated with greater plant height. Selection for greater grain and stover yield, while holding flowering time and plant height constant will be difficult. Unless the physiological trade-off between grain and stover yield and the causes of the large GEI for both traits can be better understood, conventional selection on phenotypic performance for grain and stover yield in the AICSIP trials is likely to continue to be slow. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

DeLacy I.H.,University of Queensland | Kaul S.,National Research Center for Sorghum | Rana B.S.,National Research Center for Sorghum | Cooper M.,DuPont Pioneer
Field Crops Research | Year: 2010

Genotype-by-environment interactions (GEI) have been identified as an important component of the genotypic variation for grain and stover yield traits of rabi sorghum varieties and hybrids in India. It has been argued that obtaining an understanding of the causes of these GEI is an important step to identify the scope for genetic improvement of grain and stover yield by conventional breeding. Pattern analysis was used to investigate the regional structure of the GEI for the four traits grain yield, stover yield, days-to-flower, and plant height, measured on the varieties and hybrids tested over 10 years in the All India Coordinated Sorghum Improvement Program (AICSIP). There was evidence that regional differences accounted for part of the GEI for grain yield and days-to-flower but not for stover yield and plant height. Cluster analysis was used to group the locations included in the ACSIP experiments. The five-group level was chosen to examine the causes of GEI among the location groups. Hypotheses were proposed for the observed regional grouping of trials for grain yield. One group of trials consisted of predominantly irrigated trials, the other four groups differed in the timing and intensity of drought stress imposed on the entries. This retrospective analysis provides a basis for testing the hypothesised contributions of environmental variation in water availability to regional GEI for grain and stover yield. If these hypotheses are substantiated, the current multi-environment testing strategy used for the AICSIP trials could be modified to ensure adequate sampling of the five regional groups identified by the retrospective pattern analysis. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Ambekar S.S.,Marathwada Agricultural University | Kamatar M.Y.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | Ganesamurthy K.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Ghorade R.B.,Punjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyalaya | And 7 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2011

Grain mould causes qualitative and quantitative loss to grain in sorghum. Grain mould resistance is a complex problem as grain mould is caused by complex of fungi and the resistance is governed by many traits. Breeding efforts during the last 3 decades to develop grain mould resistance in high yielding genotypes have not paid many dividends. We developed a strategy to breed for grain mould resistance in high yielding back ground. Twenty five crosses between elite lines and grain mould resistant genetic stocks (susceptible×resistant/moderately resistant and moderately resistant×resistant crosses) were evaluated in F1, and derivatives performing superiorly for grain mould resistance in F2-F4 at physiological maturity were advanced. The early generation material F2s (10) and F3s (125) in 6 locations (representing rainy-season-sorghum growing 6 states of India where grain mould is one of the major biotic stresses), and later generations F4s and F5s in 3 locations (one location, Parbhani is a hot spot for grain moulds and 2 locations, Hyderabad and Coimbatore in epiphytotic conditions) were evaluated. Only 25 selections out of 384 derivatives in F4 were superior over locations for grain mould resistance at physiological maturity and harvest maturity (Our simultaneous studies in RILs for grain mould resistance across years and locations have shown that the variation obtained for grain mould resistance at physiological maturity is genetically governed and the grain mould score further gets compounded at harvest maturity depending on rainfall received after physiological maturity). These superior lines were advanced and further evaluated in F5 and F6 for grain mould resistance and grain yield. During 2007, out of 25 F5 derivatives, 12 were on par (scored 3.1-4.4) with resistant check, B 58586 (3.2 score) where as susceptible check, 296 B registered a score of 7.5. GMN nos. 41, 52, 59, and 63 performed on par with resistant check, B 58586 for grain mould resistance over 9 environments. Since we selected for grain mould resistance in early generations at physiological maturity in multi-locations, we could identify superior lines for grain mould resistance. Most of these lines are high yielding and on par with elite check, C43 for grain yield. These lines are distinct for DUS testing traits from grain mould resistant check, B 58586. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Shrivastava D.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Dalal M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Dalal M.,National Research Center for Sorghum | Nain V.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy | Year: 2011

Gene integration in plants by homologous recombination eliminates variation in transgene expression and gives a predictable plant phenotype. Present study demonstrates homologous recombination-mediated integration of Bacillus thuringenisis cry1Fa1 gene at Flavonoid-3-glucosyltransferase (anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway) locus in Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.), for introduction of resistance against its major insect pest 'Brinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer' (BFSB) (Leucinodes orbonalis). The transgenic lines showed complete protection against BFSB. These results provide a novel perspective on development of genetically modified crops with stable and predictable transgene expression, and the possibility of the utilization of such promising technology in future crop improvement programmes.

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