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Revathi P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Revathi P.,National Research Center for Plant Biotechnology | Tomar S.M.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Vinod,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2010

Two highly effective genes for leaf rust resistance viz., Lr24, Lr28 and a stripe rust resistance gene Yr15 were selected for pyramiding in the background of a susceptible but high yielding bread wheat variety HD2877. The screening against most virulent pathotypes of leaf rust 77-5 (121R63-1) and stripe rust, 46S119 and 78S84 indicated that all the three genes confer a high degree of seedling and adult plant resistance. The use of molecular markers, namely, SCS1302 607, SCS421 570 and Xgwm273 validated the presence of resistance genes, Lr24 and Yr15 in Sunstar* 6/C80-1//V763- 2312 and Lr28 in HW2033 both being donors. The application of molecular markers facilitated identification of individual plants in three-way cross (HD2877 × Sunstar* 6/C80-1//V763-2312) × HW2033, BC 1-F 1 and BC 2-F 1 generations possessing the targeted genes. Finally eight plants were selected in BC2-F2 generation carrying the desired resistance genes, Lr24, Lr28 and Yr15 in different combinations in the background of HD2877. The availability of combination of major rust resistance genes in desirable background would facilitate the strategic deployment of wheat varieties to achieve durable resistance. Source

Konsam S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Chellapilla B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Ram G.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Chellapilla T.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Jain P.K.,National Research Center for Plant Biotechnology
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2014

From a nutritional point of view, the a -galactosides are believed to be implicated in the development of flatulence following the ingestion of legume seeds. One important group of these compounds is the soluble a -galactosides, all of which are characterized by the presence of α (1-6) links between the galactose molecules which are responsible for causing flatulence viz., raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) like raffinose and stachyose. There is very little information about the genetic variability and diversity among the cultivated chickpea for RFOs. Diversity among 50 chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes differing in their RFOs content was studied using SSR markers. Out of 86 primers tested, 36 reported polymorphism amplifying 81 alleles. Dendrogram based on Jaccard's similarity coefficients were generated based on an average linkage algorithm (UPGMA) using marker data. Genotypes were grouped into three clusters based on genetic distances and the UPGMA grouping could clearly discriminate the genotypes effectively as per their pedigree and origin. The grouping pattern also seems to have followed the pattern of RFOs content, seed type, seed size apart from the breeding centre from where they were developed. The present molecular diversity among the genotypes studied can be exploited effectively by crossing the genotypes of Cluster I and III with that of Cluster II as these both clusters are most further apart so as to obtain transgressive segregants for RFOs content and selection can be implemented for selecting lines with lower RFOs content. ICRISAT lines which were desi types had the highest RFOs content i.e. raffinose and stachyose and formed a distinct group (III). Similarly the kabuli breeding lines obtained from ICARDA, Syria also formed a distinct group (I) and had greater RFOs content compared to the breeding lines obtained from IARI. The lowest raffinose and stachyose was recorded in lines obtained from IARI, Chickpea Program lines. Source

Pandey A.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Chaudhary P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh S.B.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Arora A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2012

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are wide spread industrial pollutants that are released into the environment from burning of coal, distillation of wood, operation of gas works, oil refineries, vehicular emission, and combustion process. In this study a lipolytic bacterium was isolated from mixed stover compost of Saccharum munja and Brassica campestris. This strain was identified by both classical and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing method and designated as Serratia marcesencs L-11. HPLC-based quantitation revealed 39- 100% degradation of PAH compounds within seven days. Further its ability to produce catechol 1, 2-dioxygenase (1.118 μM mL -1 h -1) and biosurfactants (0.88 g L -1) during growth in PAH containing medium may be responsible for its PAH-degradation potential. This novel bacterium with an ability to produce lipases, biosurfactant and ring cleavage enzyme can prove to be useful for in-situ degradation of PAH compounds. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Namita,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Panwar S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Sonah H.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh K.P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

The genetic diversity of 15 genotypes of Tagetes erecta L. (African marigold; Af/ws-1, Af/ws-2, Af/ws-3, Af/ws-4, Af/ws-5, Af/ws-6 and Af/ws-7) and Tagetes patula L. (French marigold; Fr/ws-1, Fr/ws-2, Fr/ws-3, Fr/ws-4, Fr/ws-5, Fr/ ws-6, Fr/ws-7 and Fr/ws-8) were assessed using PCR based RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat) markers. Twenty three RAPD primers were used to generate polymorphism and mean per cent polymorphism was found as 57.72% ranging from 33.33% (OPF-2) to 83.33% (RAPD-07). Five most informative primers (OPA-02, OPA-04, OPO-10, RAPD-07 and RAPD-18) were identified on the basis of level of polymorphism detected by individual primer. Twelve ISSR primers were also used to generate polymorphism and mean per cent polymorphism was 60.48% ranging from 40.00% (ISSR-02, ISSR-17) to 90.00% (ISSR-03). The five most informative primers (ISSR-03, ISSR-06, ISSR-12, ISSR-31 and ISSR-18) were also identified on the basis of polymorphism. The dendrogram obtained from UPGMA cluster analysis of Jaccard's similarity values based on 23 RAPD and 12 ISSR markers grouped 15 genotypes into two clusters species wise (Tagetes erecta and Tagetes patula) which confirm the reliability of PCR based molecular markers. PCA analysis also confirmed the grouping of genotypes as they were present in same group as revealed by RAPD and ISSR markers. Source

Das S.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Krishnan P.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Mishra V.,National Research Center for Plant Biotechnology | Kumar R.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2015

The interactive effect of temperature with other climatic and soil factors has profound influences on the growth and development of rice. The responses of rice to high temperatures under field conditions are more important than those under the controlled conditions. To understand the genes associated with high temperature stress response in general and tolerance in particular, the expression of all those genes associated with adaptation and tolerance in rice requires proteomic analysis. High temperature stress-tolerant cv. N22 was subjected to 28/18 °C (control) and 42/32 °C (high temperature stress) at flowering stage. The plants were grown in the field under the free air temperature increment condition. The proteomic changes in rice leaves due to high temperature stress were discussed. The proteomes of leaves had about 3000 protein spots, reproducibly detected on 2-dimensional electrophoretic gels with 573 proteins differentially expressed between the control and the high temperature treatments. Putative physiological functions suggested five categories such as growth (15.4 %), heat shock proteins (7.7 %), regulatory proteins (26.9 %), redox homeostasis proteins (11.5 %) and energy and metabolism (38.5 %) related proteins. The results of the present study suggest that cv. N22, an agronomically recognized temperature tolerant rice cultivar copes with high temperature stress in a complex manner. Several functional proteins play important roles in its responses. The predicted climate change events necessitate more studies using this cultivar under different simulated ecological conditions to identify proteomic changes and the associated genes to be used as biomarkers and to gain a better understanding on the biochemical pathways involved in tolerance. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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