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Wu Z.-H.,Qingdao Technological University | Ren J.,China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research | Huang Z.-L.,China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research | Huang Z.-L.,National Research Center for sustainable Hydropower Development | Wu W.,Queens University
Shuili Xuebao/Journal of Hydraulic Engineering | Year: 2014

Optimization of sewage outfall location and reduction of the pollutant discharge are complex environmental issues in reality. A set of simplified, classified equations that are categorized for river bank, off-bank and river center discharging were proposed to predict the non-dimensional maximum length, maximum width and area. Using these equations can avoid the complicate trial-and-error progress in the theoretical method. According to the off-bank coefficient η, procedures of calculation in real applications and examples were demonstrated in the prediction of pollutant-mixing zone range, the optimization of outfall locations and the pollutant discharge reduction under the river bank (near-bank), off-bank and river center discharge conditions. In specific engineering project design, the off-bank distance of the sewage outfall and the sewage reductions can be verified by considering from both the economic and technical aspects. The result provides aclassified, simple and convenient theoretical method and design examples for the optimization of outfall location and for the pollution load reduction calculation. © 2014, China Water Power Press. All right reserved.


Wu Z.-H.,Qingdao Technological University | Ren J.,China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research | Huang Z.-L.,China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research | Huang Z.-L.,National Research Center for sustainable Hydropower Development | Wu W.,Queens University
Shuili Xuebao/Journal of Hydraulic Engineering | Year: 2014

Upon the condition that continuous point source is discharged off-bank in rivers those are wide according to their environmental diffusion, calculation method for the pollutant-mixing zone was derived from the simplified two-dimensional transport equation which considers the longitudinal advection and transvers diffusion. Standard and non-dimensionalized equations for the boundary of the pollutant-mixing zone were obtained. Two kinds of pollutant-mixing zone were identified by the off-bank coefficient: 0≤ η≤2 and η>2. Relations between the five characteristic parameters, plus the area of the zone, and η were found. The changing pattern of the parameters was analyzed. The off-bank coefficient η was proposed as the classification parameter, providing the criteria for the categorization. The classification criteria for river bank, off-bank and river center discharge types are: 1 for 0≤η≤0.7, the outfall can be simplified as the type of river bank (near-bank) discharge; 2 for 0.7< η<2.3, it is named the type of off-bank discharge; 3 for η≥2.3, the outfall can be simplified as the type of river center discharge. The current equation of the distance has been improved to reach full section uniform mixing in off-bank river discharge. The result provides classified, simple and convenient theoretical method for the optimization of outfall location and for the pollution load control calculation thus has important practical value.


Han M.Y.,Peking University | Sui X.,China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research | Sui X.,National Research Center for sustainable Hydropower Development | Huang Z.L.,China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research | And 6 more authors.
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2014

Hydropower fuels the overall societal development by contributing a notable proportion to the whole global power generation. Although much attention has been paid to the development of hydropower, few of them attempted to gather global systematic data and conduct a large-scale review of scientific studies. In such situation, a bibliometric approach is employed in this study to quantitatively evaluate global scientific research on hydropower sustainable development, with a long time span ranging from 1991 to 2012. 434 publications in accordance with the search criteria from Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded) database are analyzed statistically, and assessments on research development, current trends, and future directions are conducted in regard to eight categories. By synthetically analyzing the keywords, the dominant hotspots of hydropower sustainable research could be concluded as "Turkey", "Eco-", "Small hydro-", and "Fish". Along with a comparable number of publications to the United State, the keyword "Turkey" has exhibited a notable increase since 2000, revealing its predominance in the research on the hydropower sustainable development. Increasing attention has also been directed to the prefixes "Small hydro-" and "Eco-" in recent years. The keywords related to fish are identified from the keyword analyses as well, suggesting that the significance of fish studies has been recognized by researchers. Given the trend during the past several years, these topics are likely to become primary research focuses in the coming period. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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