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Wang L.,Peking University | Cui Y.,Peking University | Cui Y.,Urogenital Diseases Male Molecular Diagnosis and Treatment Center | Zhang L.,National Research Center for Genitourinary Oncology | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Cyclin D2 (CCND2) is a member of the D-type cyclins, which plays a pivotal role in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and malignant transformation. However, its expression status and relative regulation mechanism remains unclear in renal cell cancer (RCC). In our study, the mRNA expression level of CCND2 is down-regulated in 22/23 paired RCC tissues (p<0.05). In addition, its protein expression level is also decreased in 43/43 RCC tumor tissues compared with its corresponding non-malignant tissues (p<0.001). We further detected that CCND2 was down-regulated or silenced in 6/7 RCC cell lines, but expressed in "normal" human proximal tubular (HK-2) cell line. Subsequently, MSP and BGS results showed that the methylation status in CCND2 promoter region is closely associated with its expression level in RCC cell lines. Treatment with 5-Aza with or without TSA restored CCND2 expression in several methylated RCC cell lines. Among the 102 RCC tumors, methylation of CCND2 was detected in 29/102 (28%) cases. Only 2/23 (8.7%) adjacent non-malignant tissues showed methylation. We then analyzed the correlation of clinical features and its promoter methylation. Collectively, our data suggested that loss of CCND2 expression is closely associated with the promoter aberrant methylation. © 2016 Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Ge P.,Peking University | Ge P.,National Research Center for Genitourinary Oncology | Wang Z.-C.,Peking University | Wang Z.-C.,National Research Center for Genitourinary Oncology | And 6 more authors.
BMC Urology | Year: 2015

Background: To investigate the efficacy of initial biopsy or transurethral resection of bladder tumor for detecting histological variants on radical cystectomy and to assess the prognostic significance of variant histology on urothelial carcinoma outcomes after radical cystectomy. Methods: Clinical and histopathological characteristics of 147 patients with variant histology who underwent radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma between 2006 and 2012 were assessed. Sensitivity was calculated as the proportion of radical cystectomy specimens with a particular variant that also presented the variant in the biopsy or transurethral resection specimen. The Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis were used to estimate cancer-specific survival. Results: Of the 147 patients, 116 (79 %) were diagnosed with a single variant histology, and 31 (21 %) had multiple patterns. Squamous differentiation (31 %) was the most common single variant histology, followed by glandular differentiation (28 %). Except for small cell variant (100 %), the sensitivity of biopsy and transurethral resection was most effective for the diagnosis of squamous differentiation, 19 % vs. 40 % respectively, followed by glandular differentiation, 11 % vs. 21 % respectively. A total of 6 % and 49 % patients could be variant-free partially due to biopsy or complete resection(s) respectively. Presence of variant differentiation in urothelial carcinoma at cystectomy was significantly associated with inferior survival both in univariate analysis (P∈=∈0.005) and multivariate analysis (HR4.48, 95 % CI:1.03-19.53). Conclusions: Overall sensitivity of biopsy or transurethral resection to detect variant differentiation on cystectomy is relatively low. Patients with variant differentiation on cystectomy specimens have inferior survival. © 2015 Ge et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Fan Y.,Peking University | Fan Y.,National Research Center for Genitourinary Oncology | Hu S.,Peking University | Hu S.,National Research Center for Genitourinary Oncology | And 17 more authors.
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2014

Clinical studies suggested thatandrogen might be associated with infiltrating T cells in prostate of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients, but detail of T-cell subset and mechanism still remained unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that intraprostatic 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) exerts effects on T cells recruitment by BPH epithelial cells. Prostate tissues from 64 cases of BPH patients after transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) were divided into 2 groups: (1) no medication history; (2) administration of 5α-reductase type II inhibitor-finasteride 5 mg daily for at least 6 months before surgery. Group 2 presented significantly higher CD8+ T cells infiltration than group 1, but no changes in CD4+ T cells (immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry). In vitro study more CD8+ T cell migrated to the prostate tissue lysates from group 2 and BPH-1 cells in low DHT condition. Transcription of chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand 5 (CCL5) mRNA in BPH-1 cells and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) mRNA in CD8+ T cells were upregulated in low DHT condition (q-PCR). CCL5 expression was also identified to be higher in group 2 prostate tissues by IHC. This study suggested that intraprostatic DHT may participate in regulating inflammatory response which was induced by human prostatic epithelial cell, via modulating CCL5 secretion. © 2014 Yu Fan et al.


Hu S.,Peking University | Hu S.,National Research Center for Genitourinary Oncology | Yu W.,Peking University | Yu W.,National Research Center for Genitourinary Oncology | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Membrane Biology | Year: 2014

Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers has been detected clinically in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissues. To understand the molecular basis, we investigated the role of stromal microenvironment in the progression of EMT in BPH cells. First, we used cell culture supernatant from normal prostate stromal WPMY-1 cells to provide supernatant-conditioned medium (WSCM) to culture the BPH-1 cell line. Then, the morphological changes and migratory capacity were detected in BPH-1 cells. The expression of EMT markers was examined in BPH-1 cells by Western blot and immunofluorescent analysis. Finally, to investigate the role of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) in this process, the WSCM-cultured cells were treated with monoclonal antibody against TGF-β1 to study its effect on EMT. We found that the morphology of BPH-1 cells changed to a spindle-like shape after cultured in WSCM, and the levels of E-cadherin and cytokeratin 5/8 (CK5/8) were significantly lower than the cells cultured in ordinary medium. These BPH-1 cells were also tested positive for mesenchymal markers vimentin and a-smooth muscle actin (SMA) as well as Snail. We also found WSCM can increase the migratory capacity of BPH-1 cells. In addition, when they were treated with anti-TGF-β1, upregulation of E-cadherin and CK5/8 levels was observed but no expression of vimentin, alpha-SMA or Snail was detected. Furthermore, phosphorylated-Smad3 expression in WSCM-cultured BPH-1 cells was also suppressed by anti-TGF-β1 treatment. Our results demonstrated that stromal cell supernatant was able to induce EMT in BPH-1 cells, possibly through secreting TGF-β1 to activate Smad signaling. Our results suggest novel molecular targets for clinical treatment of BPH by modification of stromal microenvironment through inhibiting TGF-β1/Smad expression. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.


Zhang Q.,Peking University | Zhang Q.,National Research Center for Genitourinary Oncology | Zhang Q.,Joint Center for Cancer Epigenetics | Ying J.,National Research Center for Genitourinary Oncology | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Urology | Year: 2010

Purpose: Identifying tumor suppressor genes silenced by promoter CpG methylation uncovers mechanisms of tumorigenesis and identifies new epigenetic biomarkers for early cancer detection. DLEC1 is located at 3p22.3, a critical tumor suppressor gene locus for renal cell carcinoma. We explored its epigenetic alteration in renal cell carcinoma and possible clinicopathological association. Materials and Methods: We examined DLEC1 expression and methylation by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase and methylation specific polymerase chain reaction in 9 renal cell carcinoma cell lines and 81 primary tumors. We also analyzed the relationship between DLEC1 methylation and clinicopathological features in patients with renal cell carcinoma. We assessed DLEC1 inhibition of renal cell carcinoma cell growth by colony formation assay. Results: DLEC1 methylation and down-regulation were detected in all renal cell carcinoma cell lines. Treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (Sigma®) and/or trichostatin A (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, Michigan) reversed methylation and restored DLEC1 expression, indicating that methylation directly mediates its silencing. Aberrant methylation was further detected in 25 of 81 primary tumors (31%) but only 1 of 53 nonmalignant renal tissues (2%) showed methylation. DLEC1 methylation status was significantly associated with TNM classification and grade in patients with renal cell carcinoma (chi-square test p = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). DLEC1 ectopic expression in silenced renal cell carcinoma cells resulted in substantial tumor cell clonogenicity inhibition. Conclusions: To our knowledge we report for the first time that DLEC1 is often down-regulated by CpG methylation and shows tumor inhibitory function in renal cell carcinoma cells, indicating its role as a tumor suppressor. DLEC1 tumor specific methylation may serve as a biomarker for early detection and prognosis prediction of this tumor. © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.


PubMed | National Research Center for Genitourinary Oncology, National Urological Cancer Center and Peking University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Cyclin D2 (CCND2) is a member of the D-type cyclins, which plays a pivotal role in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and malignant transformation. However, its expression status and relative regulation mechanism remains unclear in renal cell cancer (RCC). In our study, the mRNA expression level of CCND2 is down-regulated in 22/23 paired RCC tissues (p<0.05). In addition, its protein expression level is also decreased in 43/43 RCC tumor tissues compared with its corresponding non-malignant tissues (p<0.001). We further detected that CCND2 was down-regulated or silenced in 6/7 RCC cell lines, but expressed in normal human proximal tubular (HK-2) cell line. Subsequently, MSP and BGS results showed that the methylation status in CCND2 promoter region is closely associated with its expression level in RCC cell lines. Treatment with 5-Aza with or without TSA restored CCND2 expression in several methylated RCC cell lines. Among the 102 RCC tumors, methylation of CCND2 was detected in 29/102 (28%) cases. Only 2/23 (8.7%) adjacent non-malignant tissues showed methylation. We then analyzed the correlation of clinical features and its promoter methylation. Collectively, our data suggested that loss of CCND2 expression is closely associated with the promoter aberrant methylation.

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