National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurements

Beijing, China

National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurements

Beijing, China

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Yang B.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Zhou L.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Xue N.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Li F.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

Receptor models are useful tools to identify sources of a specific pollutant and to estimate the quantitative contributions of each source based on environmental data. This paper reports on similarities and differences in results achieved when testing three receptor models for estimating the sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils from Huanghuai Plain, China. The three tested models are Principal Component Analysis with Multiple Linear Regression (PCA-MLR), Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and Unmix. Overall source contributions as well as modeled ∑ PAHs concentrations compared well among models. All three models apportioned three common PAH sources: wood/biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion and traffic emission, which contributed on average 27.7%, 53.0% and 19.3% by PCA-MLR, 36.9%, 27.2% and 16.3% by PMF, and 47.8%, 21.1% and 18.3% by Unmix to the total sum of PAHs (∑ PAHs), respectively. Moreover, the spatial evolution of the common sources were well correlated among models (r = 0.83-0.99, p<0.001). In addition, the PMF and Unmix models allowed segregating an additional source from the fossil fuel combustion source, with 19.6% and 11.8% contributions to ∑ PAHs, respectively. The current findings further validate that different receptor models provide divergent source profiles, which are mainly attributed to both the model itself and/or the underlying dataset. It is therefore generally recommended to apply multiple techniques to determine the source apportionment in order to minimize individual-method weaknesses and thereby to strengthen the conclusion. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Widory D.,Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières | Liu X.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Dong S.,National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurements
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2010

Even after its being phased out in gasoline in the late 90s, lead (Pb) is still present at relatively high levels in the atmosphere of Beijing, China (0.10-0.18μgm-3). Its origin is subject to debate as several distinct sources may contribute to the observed pollution levels. This study proposes to constrain the origin(s) of Pb and strontium (Sr) in aerosols, by coupling both Pb and Sr isotope systematics. The characterisation of the main pollution sources (road traffic, smelters, metal refining plants, coal combustion, cement factories, and soil erosion) shows that they can unambiguously be discriminated by the multi-isotope approach (206Pb/204Pb and 87Sr/86Sr). The study of total suspended particulates (TSP) and fine particles (PM2.5) from Beijing and its vicinity indicates that both size fractions are controlled by the same sources. Lead isotopes indicate that metal refining plants are the major source of atmospheric lead, followed by thermal power stations and other coal combustion processes. The role of this latter source is confirmed by the study of strontium isotopes. Occasionally, emissions from cement plants and/or input from soil alteration are isotopically detectable. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Geng H.,Shanxi University | Hwang H.,Korea Polar Research Institute | Liu X.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Dong S.,National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurements | Ro C.-U.,Inha University
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2014

This is the first study of Asian dust storm (ADS) particles collected in Beijing, China, and Incheon, Korea, during a spring ADS event. Using a seven-stage May impactor and a quantitative electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA, also known as low-Z particle EPMA), we examined the composition and morphology of 4200 aerosol particles at stages 1-6 (with a size cut-off of 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, and 0.5 μm in equivalent aerodynamic diameter, respectively) collected during an ADS event on 28-29 April 2005. The results showed that there were large differences in the chemical compositions between particles in sample S1 collected in Beijing immediately after the peak time of the ADS and in samples S2 and S3, which were collected in Incheon approximately 5 h and 24 h later, respectively. In sample S1, mineral dust particles accounted for more than 88% in relative number abundance at stages 1-5; and organic carbon (OC) and reacted NaCl-containing particles accounted for 24% and 32%, respectively, at stage 6. On the other hand, in samples S2 and S3, in addition to approximately 60% mineral dust, many sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles reacted with airborne SO2 and NOx (accounting for 24% and 14% on average in samples S2 and S3, respectively), often mixed with mineral dust, were encountered at stages 1-5, and (C, N, O, S)-rich particles (likely a mixture of water-soluble organic carbon with (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3) were abundantly observed at stage 6 (accounting for 68% and 51% in samples S2 and S3, respectively). This suggests that an accumulation of sea-salt components on individual ADS particles larger than 1 μm in diameter occurred and many secondary aerosols smaller than 1 μm in diameter were formed when the ADS particles passed over the Yellow Sea. In the reacted or aged mineral dust and SSA particles, nitrate-containing and both nitrate- and sulfate-containing species vastly outnumbered the sulfate-containing species, implying that ambient NOx had a greater influence on the atmospheric particles than SO2 during this ADS episode. In addition to partially- or totally-reacted CaCO3, reacted or aged Mg-containing aluminosilicates were observed frequently in samples S2 and S3; furthermore, a student's t test showed that both their atomic concentration ratios of [Mg] / [Al] and [Mg] / [Si] were significantly elevated (P < 0.05) compared to those in samples S1 (for [Mg] / [Al], 0.34 ± 0.09 and 0.40 ± 0.03 in samples S2 and S3, respectively, vs. 0.24 ± 0.01 in sample S1; for [Mg] / [Si], 0.21 ± 0.05 and 0.22 ± 0.01 in samples S2 and S3, respectively, vs. 0.12 ± 0.02 in sample S1). The significant increase of [Mg] / [Al] and [Mg] / [Si] ratios in Mg-containing aluminosilicates indicates that a significant evolution or aging must have occurred on the ADS particles in the marine atmosphere during transport from China to Korea. © Author(s) 2014.


Shi S.,National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurements | Dong L.,National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurements | Yang W.,National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurements | Zhou L.,National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurements | And 3 more authors.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research | Year: 2014

Urban road dust and camphor tree bark samples were collected in June of 2009 from Suzhou, Wuxi and Nantong in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Eight polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (BDE-28, 47, 100, 99,154, 153, 183 and 209) were measured to determine the levels and compositional profiles in the samples. The concentrations of Σ7PBDEs and BDE-209 ranged from N.D to 35.5 μg/kg and 4.01 to 1439 μg/kg dry weight (dw) in the road dust samples, 5.1 to 799 μg/kg and 121 to 3243 μg/kg lipid weight (lw) in the tree bark samples, respectively. BDE-209 was the predominant congener (contributing to 64.1-99.8% of Σ8PBDEs) in all samples. Apart from fugitive emissions from PBDE-containing products, combustion processes and vehicles emissions could also contribute BDE-209 to the road dust and tree bark samples. On average, the PBDEs contamination degree in three cities follow the order of Nantong > Suzhou > Wuxi. Road dust and tree bark proved to be an effective accumulator to reflect the degree of atmospheric PBDEs pollutants in the urban environment. © Taiwan Association for Aerosol Research.


Li Y.-W.,National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurements | Sun P.-Q.,National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment | Sun H.-R.,National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment
Yejin Fenxi/Metallurgical Analysis | Year: 2014

Quartile and iteration are two robust statistic methods used to calculate target standard deviation of data of proficiency testing, whose results are directly applied to evaluate whether the laboratory data are qualified. The analysis results of the two robust statistic methods are compared based on 195 sets of data (more than 100 test items) of proficiency testing. The calculation results of both simulation and real data show that the results of two methods are basically consistent when data tend to normal distribution. But when the testing item data obviously deviates from normal distribution, the standard deviation from quartile method is so strict that the pass rate of laboratory data is obviously decreased and it appears to make statistically "abandoning true" mistake. The rationality of two methods is evaluated based on the results from classic statistics deleted outliers. The average of relative deviation between two results results is 5.7%, which means the two results are relatively closed to each other for solid samples. The relative deviation of two methods' results is 13.8% for liquid samples, which means the difference of two methods is relatively large. Iteration method not only reduces the effect of outliers on statistical analysis results but also avoids the human factor in the identification of outliers. It is suggested that the iteration method should be applied in domestic standards system in proficiency testing as soon as possible.


Shi S.,National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurements | Huang Y.,National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurements | Zhou L.,National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurements | Yang W.,National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurements | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2013

Urban road dust samples were collected from different land use areas in Suzhou, Wuxi, and Nantong, Yangtze River Delta, China. The dust samples were analyzed for the levels and compositional profiles of deca-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (Deca-BDE), 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The levels of BDE-209, ΣOCPs, and ΣPAHs in samples ranged from 4.01-1,439 μg/kg, 3.15-615 μg/kg, and 2.24-58.2 mg/kg, respectively. PAHs were the predominant target compounds in road dust samples, comprising on average 97.7 % of total compounds. The spatial gradient of the pollutants (commercial/residential area> industrial area > urban park concentrations) was observed in the present study. The results indicated that the levels of BDE-209, OCPs, and PAHs observed in road dust were usually linked to anthropogenic activities in the urban environment. In addition, there might be a reflection of current usage or emissions of OCPs in urban environment. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Du B.,National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurements | Liu A.,National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurements | Huang Y.,National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurements
Chinese Journal of Chromatography (Se Pu) | Year: 2014

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in soil samples were analyzed by isotope dilution method with high resolution gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry (ID-HRGC/HRMS), and the toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) were calculated. The impacts of major source of measurement uncertainty are discussed, and the combined relative standard uncertainties were calculated for each 2,3,7,8 substituted congener. Furthermore, the concentration, combined uncertainty and expanded uncertainty for TEQ of PCDD/Fs in a soil sample in I-TEF, WHO-1998-TEF and WHO-2005-TEF schemes are provided as an example. I-TEF, WHO-1998-TEF and WHO-2005-TEF are the evaluation schemes of toxic equivalent factor (TEF), and are all currently used to describe 2,3,7,8 substituted relative potencies.


PubMed | National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurements
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology | Year: 2014

Surface soil samples were collected from Suzhou, Wuxi and Nantong in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China. Eight BDE congeners (BDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) were measured to determine the levels and compositional profiles in the samples. The concentrations of 7PBDEs and BDE-209 ranged from 0.04 to 2.23 g/kg dw and 1.48 to 41.7 g/kg dw in the samples, respectively. BDE-209 was the predominant congener (contributing to 69.2 %-99.8 % of 8PBDEs) in all samples. It was found that small towns and rural economic development zones in this region had also become sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers pollutants to surrounding areas. Investigation of the pattern of BDE congener profiles showed that deca- and octa- technical formulations as emission sources were identified in the samples collected from the YRD.


PubMed | National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurements
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue | Year: 2013

Fifty-eight urban road dust samples were collected in June of 2009 from Suzhou, Wuxi and Nantong, South Jiangsu Province. Eight polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and thirty-two polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Concentrations of Sigma8PBDEs and Sigma32PCBs ranged from 4. 21 to 1 471 microg.kg-1 and ND was 14. 1 microg.kg-1 in the road dust samples, respectively. On the average, levels of PBDEs were much higher than PCBs in samples. Compared with the levels of PBDEs and PCBs in urban soil samples, results indicated that PBDEs levels observed in road dust samples were much higher than urban soil samples collected from other cities. Road dust PBDEs from combustion sources and vehicle emission should be attracted concerns. No significant difference was found between the levels of PBDEs or PCBs in the industrial areas and the urban center area, but was higher than landscape area. The results showed that there were exited unintentional emissions of PCBs in industrial areas. Investigation of compositional pattern of PBDEs indicated that BDE209 was the predominant congener in all samples, contributed 96.7% (64. 1% -99.8% ) of Sigma8 PBDEs . The dominant congeners in the Sigma32PCBs were tetra-PCBs and hexa-PCBs. The compositional pattern of PCBs congeners found in the road dust was not consistent with that of the commercial PCBs product and other environmental matrix.


PubMed | National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurements
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2013

Urban road dust samples were collected from different land use areas in Suzhou, Wuxi, and Nantong, Yangtze River Delta, China. The dust samples were analyzed for the levels and compositional profiles of deca-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (Deca-BDE), 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The levels of BDE-209, OCPs, and PAHs in samples ranged from 4.01-1,439 g/kg, 3.15-615 g/kg, and 2.24-58.2 mg/kg, respectively. PAHs were the predominant target compounds in road dust samples, comprising on average 97.7 % of total compounds. The spatial gradient of the pollutants (commercial/residential area> industrial area > urban park concentrations) was observed in the present study. The results indicated that the levels of BDE-209, OCPs, and PAHs observed in road dust were usually linked to anthropogenic activities in the urban environment. In addition, there might be a reflection of current usage or emissions of OCPs in urban environment.

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