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Wang S.,Yangtze University | Srivastava A.K.,National Research Center for Citrus | Wu Q.-S.,Yangtze University | Fokom R.,University of Douala
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Key rhizosphere properties influenced by microorganism-mediated processes need to be identified for better understanding of their possible role in improving crop performance. This study monitored the changes in concentration of Bradford-reactive soil protein (BRSP), soil organic carbon (SOC) content, hyphal length, aggregate stability [fractal dimension (D), geometric mean diameter (GMD), and mean weight diameter (MWD)] and distribution of water-stable aggregate (WSA) in rhizosphere of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) infected by five arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species (Diversispora spurca, Glomus intraradices, Glomus mosseae, Glomus versiforme, and Paraglomus occultum). After four months of mycorrhizal inoculation, all the mycorrhizal plants showed higher shoot and root biomass but the increase was a function of the tested fungal species. The induced changes in rhizosphere properties were of much higher magnitude in mycorrhizal treatment than in non-mycorrhizal treatment. Mycorrhizal inoculation induced significant increases in the percentage of WSA at 1.00-2.00. mm size, fraction 1 of BRSP, SOC, and hyphal density, collectively aiding in improving the indices of soil aggregate stability, like GMD and MWD. Higher MWD and GMD conferred better soil structure in mycorrhizosphere of trifoliate orange. Correlation analysis further revealed that fraction 1 of BRSP as a new and more active glomalin may take part in stabilizing WSA but fraction 2 of BRSP as an older and more stable glomalin may contribute SOC pools. Our results suggest that mycorrhizal-mediated better soil aggregate stability might mainly be due to soil hyphal length, integrated with SOC and fraction 1 of BRSP. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Huang Y.-M.,Yangtze University | Srivastava A.K.,National Research Center for Citrus | Zou Y.-N.,Yangtze University | Ni Q.-D.,Yangtze University | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2014

Trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L) Raf.] is considered highly arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) dependent for growth responses through a series of signal transductions in form of various physiological responses. The proposed study was carried out to evaluate the effect of an AM fungus (Funneliformis mosseae) on growth, antioxidant enzyme (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD) activities, leaf relative water content (RWC), calmodulin (CaM), superoxide anion (O2·-), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in leaves of the plants exposed to both well-watered (WW) and drought stress (DS) conditions. A 58-day of DS significantly decreased mycorrhizal colonization by 60% than WW. Compared to non-AM seedlings, AM seedlings displayed significantly higher shoot morphological properties (plant height, stem diameter, and leaf number), biomass production (shoot and root fresh weight) and leaf RWC, regardless of soil water status. AM inoculation significantly increased CaM and soluble protein concentrations and CAT activity, whereas significantly decreased O2·- and H2O2 concentration under both WW and DS conditions. The AM seedlings also exhibited significantly higher Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities than the non-AM seedlings under DS but not under WW, which are triggered by higher CaM levels in AM plants on the basis of correlation studies. Further, the negative correlation of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities with O2·- and H2O2 concentration showed the DS-induced ROS scavenging ability of CaM mediated SODs under mycorrhization. Our results demonstrated that AM-inoculation elevated the synthesis of CaM in leaves and up-regulated activities of the antioxidant enzymes, thereby, repairing the possible oxidative damage to plants by lowering the ROS accumulation under DS condition. © 2014 Huang, Srivastava, Zou, Ni, Han and Wu. Source


Ladaniya M.S.,National Research Center for Citrus
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Influence of chilling temperature, intermittent warming (IW) and fungicidal wax coating was evaluated during storage of 'Nagpur- mandarins (Citrus reticulate Blanco). Fruits were light green coloured with slight colour-break at the start of storage. Waxed and non-waxed fruits were stored at 3.5 °C (constant), 2 weeks at 3.5 °C followed by IW for 1 week at 19.5 °C (cycle) and at 6.5 °C (constant), and were evaluated immediately after 30, 45, 60, 75 days and also after 1 week holding at ambient condition (24±2 °C, 60-70% RH). There was no chilling injury to fruit under IW treatment irrespective of coating. At 3.5 °C (constant) chilling injury appeared after 45 days during 1 week holding and thereafter increased at each storage interval. Wax coated fruit had lower chilling injury. Fruit under IW treatment and at 6.5 °C (constant) developed yellow-orange colour while at 3.5 °C (constant) fruit remained green during storage. Juice content, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid contents were not affected by temperature regimes and waxing while total soluble solids content was higher with IW treatment. Reducing and total sugars were higher in fruits stored at IW treatment and at 6.5 °C (constant) than at 3.5 °C (constant). Total peel phenols content were not significantly affected by waxing and temperature regimes. However, loss of phenols content was higher at 3.5 °C (constant). Phenol content decreased during storage. At 3.5 °C (constant), chlorophyll ('a-, 'b- and total) content in peel was maximum while total carotenoids were minimum with little colour development. Rapid colour development was recorded under IW and also at 1 week holding. Wax coating delayed colour development at 3.5 °C (constant). Initially carbendazim residues were higher in peel (4.0 ppm) and pulp (3.2 ppm) of waxed fruit than in non-waxed (3.2 ppm in peel and 3.1 ppm in pulp) fruit. Overall drop in residues till storage up to 75 days+ 1 week over the initial values was 80.2-85.6% in peel and 56.2-75.8% in pulp of waxed and non-waxed fruit, respectively. Respiration was lower in waxed fruit. Respiratory rate was lowest at 3.5 °C (constant) and it changed with IW. At 3.5 °C and 6.5 °C (constant), range of respiration was 4-6 mgCO2/kg/h and 7-9 mgCO2/kg/h, respectively in waxed and non-waxed fruit. Respiratory rate increased as the fruit was removed to warmer temperature. Chilling injury caused considerable rise in respiration rate of fruit. Present findings indicated that storage life of 'Nagpur- mandarin can be extended up to 75 days at 3.5 °C with IW. © Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2010. Source


David K.J.,National Research Center for Citrus | Ramani S.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

An illustrated key and a checklist are provided for 126 species of fruit flies under 46 genera in four subfamilies namely Dacinae, Phytalmiinae, Tephritinae and Trypetinae. Among these, Acroceratitis striata (Froggatt), Rhochmopterum venustum (de Meijere) and Themara yunnana Zia are new records for India. Bactrocera yercaudiae Drew is placed as a synonymn of Bactrocera digressa Radhakrishnan. Copyright © 2011 · Magnolia Press. Source


Anavrat V.,National Research Center for Citrus
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2013

Present study was conducted in Chhindwara and Shajapur; predominantly Nagpur mandarin growing two districts of Madhya Pradesh. The total sample of 100 was derived from three each talukas of two districts using simple random and proportionate random sampling method for data collection. The decision of 32 per cent growers for procuring planting material was their own whereas 29 per cent depended on friends and 17 per cent relied on progressive farmers. The procurement of production and protection inputs was governed mostly by input suppliers (29 per cent) and friends (27 per cent) followed by their own rationale (18 per cent). Assured yield /results ranked as first and the most important motivational factor in technology adoption. © EM International. Source

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