National Research Center for Banana

Tiruchirappalli, India

National Research Center for Banana

Tiruchirappalli, India
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Selvarajan R.,National Research Center for Banana
CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources | Year: 2015

Banana and plantain are important fruit crops grown in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Millions of resource-poor people depend on them for their livelihood and food security. These fruit crops are destroyed by several viral diseases causing serious economic losses wherever the crops are cultivated. Here, recent developments on the spread, distribution, biology, diversity, recombination, host range, cutting-edge techniques in diagnostics and comprehensive management of important banana viruses, i.e., banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), banana streak viruses, banana bract mosaic virus and cucumber mosaic virus, as well as minor viruses such as banana mild mosaic virus, are exhaustively reviewed. Due to its high destructive potential, BBTV is regarded as a quarantine pest of very high importance in the banana exporting countries of South and Central America. Using tissue culture technology, it is now possible to control the viruses of banana by adopting virus-free certification programmes in conjunction with exclusion, eradication and adoption of quarantine measures. © 2015 CAB International.

Poorani J.,National Research Center for Banana | Booth R.G.,Natural History Museum in London
Biodiversity Data Journal | Year: 2016

Background Harmonia dunlopi (Crotch), a rare lady beetle species, was originally described from 'India' by Crotch (1874). But information on subsequent sightings of this species is absent and it has not been reported by anyone from India and its neighbouring countries ever since its original description. Because of this, Indian records of H. dunlopi were suspected to be probably misidentifications of H. dimidiata (F.), a species common in northern and northeastern India and also widely distributed in the Oriental region. New information A single male specimen of a species collected in recent surveys from Arunachal Pradesh, India, was suspected to be H. dunlopi. Comparison of this specimen with the collections at the Natural History Museum, London, confirmed that it belonged to Harmonia manillana (Mulsant), hitherto known from Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines. Harmonia manillana is a highly polymorphic species with many synonyms and based on examination of the type material, the following nomenclatural changes are proposed. Harmonia dunlopi was found to be only a color variant of H. manillana and hence it is reduced to a junior synonym of H. manillana (syn. nov.). Harmonia decussata (Crotch 1874) is removed from synonymy with H. manillana and reinstated as a valid species ( stat. rev.) and H. flavomarginata Bielawski 1968 is a new junior synonym of H. decussata (syn. nov.). This is the first record of H. manillana for India and South Asia. The male genitalia of H. manillana are illustrated and compared with those of H. dimidiata, the more common Indian species, to facilitate its recognition. © Poorani J, Booth R.

Poorani J.,National Research Center for Banana | Booth R.G.,Natural History Museum in London
Annales Zoologici | Year: 2017

Sticholotidini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Western Ghats, a designated biodiversity hotspot in India, are poorly known. Fourteen species of Sticholotidini from southern Indian plantations, Western Ghats, are treated here. Most of these species are endemic to Western Ghats and are not commonly seen in collections and there is little information on their habitat / biology. Diagnostic information on these species is given here with illustrations of male genitalia wherever possible to facilitate their identification. Sticholotis humida sp. nov. is described and illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Orcus (?) ferrugineus Gorham (1894), Clanis binotata Gorham (1894), Sticholotis cribellata Sicard (1910), Sticholotis obscurocincta Sicard (1911), Sticholotis obscurella Weise (1908), Sticholotis nilgiriensis Weise (1908), and Sticholotis tredecimmaculata Weise (1908). Synonychimorpha immaculata Poorani (2003) is reduced to a new junior synonym of S. chittagongi (Vazirani, 1983) (new synonym). A checklist of Sticholotidini known from the Western Ghats is given. © Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

Stethorus forficatus sp. nov. and Stethorus tetranychi Kapur (Coccinellidae: Stethorini) are reported as predators of the citrus hindu mite, Schizotetranychus hindustanicus (Hirst), from the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Stethorus forficatus sp. nov. is described and illustrated with diagnostic notes on S. Tetranychi and S. vietnamicus Hoàng, morphologically its closest relatives. In a remarkable case of larval mimicry in Stethorus, the larva of this species mimics the larvae of S. Tetranychi and S. pauperculus Weise. Stethorus curvus Hoàng, 1985 is reduced to a new junior synonym of Stethorus keralicus Kapur, 1961 (syn. nov.). Copyright © 2017 Magnolia Press.

Sangeetha G.,Annamalai University | Thangavelu R.,National Research Center for Banana | Usha Rani S.,Annamalai University | Muthukumar A.,Annamalai University
Biological Control | Year: 2013

A total of 72 plant extracts were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit the mycelial growth of Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Colletotrichum musae the causal agents of crown rot disease of banana. The results showed that the leaf extract of Zimmu (an interspecific hybrid of Allium cepa L.× Allium sativum L.) and tuber extract of Zehneria scabra recorded maximum inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination of both the test pathogens. The dipping of banana fruits in Zimmu leaf extract at 25% conc. exhibited 100% inhibition of crown rot disease in cold storage (14 °C) up to 35. days and increased the shelf life to 64. days. However, at room storage (28 ± 2 °C), the same treatment exhibited 86% inhibition of crown rot disease up to 12. days. It was found that the treatment of banana fruits with Zimmu leaf extract did not alter the organoleptic properties of banana. The biochemical analysis of banana fruits treated with Zimmu leaf extract showed significant increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities and enhanced accumulation of phenolic compounds compared to other treatments. These findings suggest that the effect of Zimmu leaf extract on crown rot disease may be associated with the direct fungi toxic property against the test pathogens and elicitation of defense related compounds in banana fruits. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Thangavelu R.,National Research Center for Banana | Kumar K.M.,National Research Center for Banana | Devi P.G.,National Research Center for Banana | Mustaffa M.M.,National Research Center for Banana
Molecular Biotechnology | Year: 2012

To find out the genetic diversity of Indian Foc isolates of banana, a total of 107 isolates of Fusarium which includes 98 Foc isolates obtained from different banana growing regions of India and seven Foc isolates belong to all known VCGs obtained from Australia and two non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum (npFo) isolates were subjected to ISSR analysis. In the initial screening of ISSR primers, out of 34, 10 primers which generated more polymorphic bands were selected for further analysis. The Phylogenetic analysis carried out based on the fingerprints obtained through ISSR analysis indicated the presence of wide genetic diversity among the Foc isolates of India and also its polyphyletic nature. Totally, seven different clusters were obtained and these clusters differentiated the Foc isolates of India based on the races/VCGs. Besides, the cluster analysis clearly distinguished the freshly emerged Foc strain obtained from cv. Grand Naine (Cavendish- AAA) and Poovan (Mysore-AAB) from the other Foc isolates. The non-pathogenic F. oxysporum isolates which have been included for comparison purpose also clustered separately. All these above said findings indicates for the first time the discriminatory power of ISSR to clearly distinguish and separate the Foc isolates according to its race/VCGs and also its virulence. This study would be useful not only to design and develop effective management strategies but also useful for quarantine purposes.

Uma S.,National Research Center for Banana | Lakshmi S.,National Research Center for Banana | Saraswathi M.S.,National Research Center for Banana | Akbar A.,National Research Center for Banana | Mustaffa M.M.,National Research Center for Banana
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2011

An efficient regeneration protocol for zygotic embryos at varying maturity stages was developed for wild banana (Pisang Jajee (AA)). Embryo ontogeny was studied to determine the best maturity stage for embryo rescue, suitable media and culture conditions (light and dark) for germination and regeneration. The conversion of endosperm from transparent fluid into a semi-solid state was followed by visible embryo development, which commenced only after 70% embryo maturity. Zygotic embryos of Pisang Jajee at different maturity levels were excised and cultured on medium fortified with different concentrations of 6-benzyl adenine (BA) and indole acetic acid (IAA). Zygotic embryos produced callus or plantlets 25 days after initiation. The frequency of callus induction was greater in immature embryos irrespective of the media composition and decreased with increasing maturity. Fully matured embryos regenerated directly into plantlets without producing callus. Immature embryos required medium supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) for successful regeneration. Although the culture conditions had no influence, dark conditions favoured callus induction and plant regeneration. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Ravi I.,National Research Center for Banana | Mustaffa M.M.,National Research Center for Banana
Indian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

Unripe banana fruit flour based products has a more beneficial effect on stomach related ailments in human beings due to the presence of more resistant starch (RS), which is strongly associated with amylose content. The present study was carried out to analyse sugars, starch and amylose content of mature unripened banana fruits of nine banana cultivars. Among tested cultivars, starch content varied in the range of 80.53-86.76 % and amylose content ranged from 24.41 to 36.87 %. Amylose content differentiates the dessert bananas from plantain and cooking bananas. The plantain and cooking bananas viz, Nendran, Monthan and Saba recorded >34 % of amylose and they have greater potential in food industries as raw material. Preparation of amylose rich banana fruit flour products reduces considerable post-harvest losses, especially in Nendran, thereby converting the rejected/culled banana fruits into flour based food products. © 2013 Indian Society for Plant Physiology.

Mustaffa M.M.,National Research Center for Banana | Thangavelu R.,National Research Center for Banana
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

With an annual production of 27 million tonnes, India is the world largest producer of banana. Many pests and diseases cause huge economic losses to the farmers. Among these, Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is one of the most important production constraints. The disease is widespread in almost all banana-growing states of India, with disease severity as high as 80-90% in some states where susceptible cultivars are grown on large areas. The important groups of banana severely affected by this disease are: 'Silk' (AAB), 'Ney Poovan' (AB), 'Pisang Awak' (ABB), 'Pome' (AAB), 'Bluggoe' (ABB) and 'Monthan' (ABB). Recently, a virulent strain of Foc affecting Cavendish types has been identified. In addition, 'Mysore' (AAB) which was hitherto tolerant to Foc has recently been found infected by Foc vegetative compatibility group (VCG) 0124/0125. A diversity analysis was carried out on 200 Foc isolates collected from different parts of India, to find out the various pathotypes in Foc by VCG analysis. The analysis indicated the presence of six different VCG groups. Ddiversity analyses of Foc, pathogen-host resistance, biological control using endophytes, standardisation of a diagnostic kit for the identification of the pathogen present in the soil and in the plant are the major areas of Foc research in India. Recently, molecular markers for the identification of pathogenic Fusarium present in the soil as well as in planting material have been developed. No effective control measures are available except growing of resistant cultivars. Recently, the National Research Centre for Banana (NRCB) has identified an effective fungal antagonist, Trichoderma viride, which has effectively controlled the soil-borne inoculum of the Fusarium pathogen. A massproduction protocol at farm level using banana farm waste has been developed for the cost-effective management of the disease. Activities for the effective management of this disease are discussed.

Ravi I.,National Research Center for Banana | Uma S.,National Research Center for Banana | Vaganan M.M.,National Research Center for Banana | Mustaffa M.M.,National Research Center for Banana
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2013

Drought has emerged as one of the major constraints in banana production. Its effects are pronounced substantially in the tropics and sub-tropics of the world due to climate change. Bananas are quite sensitive to drought; however, genotypes with "B" genome are more tolerant to abiotic stresses than those solely based on "A" genome. In particular, bananas with "ABB" genomes are more tolerant to drought and other abiotic stresses than other genotypes. A good phenotyping plan is a prerequisite for any improvement program for targeted traits. In the present article, known drought tolerant traits of other crop plants are validated in bananas with different genomic backgrounds and presented. Since, banana is recalcitrant to breeding, strategies for making hybrids between different genomic backgrounds are also discussed. Stomatal conductance, cell membrane stability (CMS), leaf emergence rate, rate of leaf senescence, RWC, and bunch yield under soil moisture deficit stress are some of the traits associated with drought tolerance. Among these stress bunch yield under drought should be given top priority for phenotyping. In the light of recently released Musa genome draft sequence, the molecular breeders may have interest in developing molecular markers for drought resistance. © 2013 Ravi, Uma, Vaganan and Mustaffa.

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