Tiruchirappalli, India
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Kumar P.L.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Selvarajan R.,National Research Center for Banana | Iskra-Caruana M.-L.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Chabannes M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Hanna R.,IITA
Advances in Virus Research | Year: 2015

Banana and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of banana and plantain are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of banana streak viruses (BSVs) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." Banana and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, Banana mild mosaic virus, Banana virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Sangeetha G.,Annamalai University | Thangavelu R.,National Research Center for Banana | Usha Rani S.,Annamalai University | Muthukumar A.,Annamalai University
Biological Control | Year: 2013

A total of 72 plant extracts were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit the mycelial growth of Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Colletotrichum musae the causal agents of crown rot disease of banana. The results showed that the leaf extract of Zimmu (an interspecific hybrid of Allium cepa L.× Allium sativum L.) and tuber extract of Zehneria scabra recorded maximum inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination of both the test pathogens. The dipping of banana fruits in Zimmu leaf extract at 25% conc. exhibited 100% inhibition of crown rot disease in cold storage (14 °C) up to 35. days and increased the shelf life to 64. days. However, at room storage (28 ± 2 °C), the same treatment exhibited 86% inhibition of crown rot disease up to 12. days. It was found that the treatment of banana fruits with Zimmu leaf extract did not alter the organoleptic properties of banana. The biochemical analysis of banana fruits treated with Zimmu leaf extract showed significant increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities and enhanced accumulation of phenolic compounds compared to other treatments. These findings suggest that the effect of Zimmu leaf extract on crown rot disease may be associated with the direct fungi toxic property against the test pathogens and elicitation of defense related compounds in banana fruits. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Thangavelu R.,National Research Center for Banana | Kumar K.M.,National Research Center for Banana | Devi P.G.,National Research Center for Banana | Mustaffa M.M.,National Research Center for Banana
Molecular Biotechnology | Year: 2012

To find out the genetic diversity of Indian Foc isolates of banana, a total of 107 isolates of Fusarium which includes 98 Foc isolates obtained from different banana growing regions of India and seven Foc isolates belong to all known VCGs obtained from Australia and two non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum (npFo) isolates were subjected to ISSR analysis. In the initial screening of ISSR primers, out of 34, 10 primers which generated more polymorphic bands were selected for further analysis. The Phylogenetic analysis carried out based on the fingerprints obtained through ISSR analysis indicated the presence of wide genetic diversity among the Foc isolates of India and also its polyphyletic nature. Totally, seven different clusters were obtained and these clusters differentiated the Foc isolates of India based on the races/VCGs. Besides, the cluster analysis clearly distinguished the freshly emerged Foc strain obtained from cv. Grand Naine (Cavendish- AAA) and Poovan (Mysore-AAB) from the other Foc isolates. The non-pathogenic F. oxysporum isolates which have been included for comparison purpose also clustered separately. All these above said findings indicates for the first time the discriminatory power of ISSR to clearly distinguish and separate the Foc isolates according to its race/VCGs and also its virulence. This study would be useful not only to design and develop effective management strategies but also useful for quarantine purposes.


Uma S.,National Research Center for Banana | Lakshmi S.,National Research Center for Banana | Saraswathi M.S.,National Research Center for Banana | Akbar A.,National Research Center for Banana | Mustaffa M.M.,National Research Center for Banana
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2011

An efficient regeneration protocol for zygotic embryos at varying maturity stages was developed for wild banana (Pisang Jajee (AA)). Embryo ontogeny was studied to determine the best maturity stage for embryo rescue, suitable media and culture conditions (light and dark) for germination and regeneration. The conversion of endosperm from transparent fluid into a semi-solid state was followed by visible embryo development, which commenced only after 70% embryo maturity. Zygotic embryos of Pisang Jajee at different maturity levels were excised and cultured on medium fortified with different concentrations of 6-benzyl adenine (BA) and indole acetic acid (IAA). Zygotic embryos produced callus or plantlets 25 days after initiation. The frequency of callus induction was greater in immature embryos irrespective of the media composition and decreased with increasing maturity. Fully matured embryos regenerated directly into plantlets without producing callus. Immature embryos required medium supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) for successful regeneration. Although the culture conditions had no influence, dark conditions favoured callus induction and plant regeneration. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Ravi I.,National Research Center for Banana | Mustaffa M.M.,National Research Center for Banana
Indian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

Unripe banana fruit flour based products has a more beneficial effect on stomach related ailments in human beings due to the presence of more resistant starch (RS), which is strongly associated with amylose content. The present study was carried out to analyse sugars, starch and amylose content of mature unripened banana fruits of nine banana cultivars. Among tested cultivars, starch content varied in the range of 80.53-86.76 % and amylose content ranged from 24.41 to 36.87 %. Amylose content differentiates the dessert bananas from plantain and cooking bananas. The plantain and cooking bananas viz, Nendran, Monthan and Saba recorded >34 % of amylose and they have greater potential in food industries as raw material. Preparation of amylose rich banana fruit flour products reduces considerable post-harvest losses, especially in Nendran, thereby converting the rejected/culled banana fruits into flour based food products. © 2013 Indian Society for Plant Physiology.


Mustaffa M.M.,National Research Center for Banana | Thangavelu R.,National Research Center for Banana
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

With an annual production of 27 million tonnes, India is the world largest producer of banana. Many pests and diseases cause huge economic losses to the farmers. Among these, Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is one of the most important production constraints. The disease is widespread in almost all banana-growing states of India, with disease severity as high as 80-90% in some states where susceptible cultivars are grown on large areas. The important groups of banana severely affected by this disease are: 'Silk' (AAB), 'Ney Poovan' (AB), 'Pisang Awak' (ABB), 'Pome' (AAB), 'Bluggoe' (ABB) and 'Monthan' (ABB). Recently, a virulent strain of Foc affecting Cavendish types has been identified. In addition, 'Mysore' (AAB) which was hitherto tolerant to Foc has recently been found infected by Foc vegetative compatibility group (VCG) 0124/0125. A diversity analysis was carried out on 200 Foc isolates collected from different parts of India, to find out the various pathotypes in Foc by VCG analysis. The analysis indicated the presence of six different VCG groups. Ddiversity analyses of Foc, pathogen-host resistance, biological control using endophytes, standardisation of a diagnostic kit for the identification of the pathogen present in the soil and in the plant are the major areas of Foc research in India. Recently, molecular markers for the identification of pathogenic Fusarium present in the soil as well as in planting material have been developed. No effective control measures are available except growing of resistant cultivars. Recently, the National Research Centre for Banana (NRCB) has identified an effective fungal antagonist, Trichoderma viride, which has effectively controlled the soil-borne inoculum of the Fusarium pathogen. A massproduction protocol at farm level using banana farm waste has been developed for the cost-effective management of the disease. Activities for the effective management of this disease are discussed.


Bhat A.I.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Hohn T.,Botanical Institute | Selvarajan R.,National Research Center for Banana
Viruses | Year: 2016

Badnaviruses (Family: Caulimoviridae; Genus: Badnavirus) are non-enveloped bacilliform DNA viruses with a monopartite genome containing about 7.2 to 9.2 kb of dsDNA with three to seven open reading frames. They are transmitted by mealybugs and a few species by aphids in a semi-persistent manner. They are one of the most important plant virus groups and have emerged as serious pathogens affecting the cultivation of several horticultural crops in the tropics, especially banana, black pepper, cocoa, citrus, sugarcane, taro, and yam. Some badnaviruses are also known as endogenous viruses integrated into their host genomes and a few such endogenous viruses can be awakened, e.g., through abiotic stress, giving rise to infective episomal forms. The presence of endogenous badnaviruses poses a new challenge for the fool-proof diagnosis, taxonomy, and management of the diseases. The present review aims to highlight emerging disease problems, virus characteristics, transmission, and diagnosis of badnaviruses. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Thangavelu R.,National Research Center for Banana | Gopi M.,National Research Center for Banana
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is considered as a lethal disease of bananas worldwide. To manage the disease effectively, 20 rhizospheric and 43 endophytic Trichoderma isolates obtained from 12 different Foc resistant banana accessions were evaluated against Foc in vitro and in vivo. In vitro screening among Trichoderma isolates for their multiple functions (mycelial and spore germination inhibition, hydrogen cyanide, chitinolytic enzymes, non-volatile and volatile metabolites production) in suppressing Foc and promoting plant growth (IAA production and phosphate solubilisation) indicated that the multiple biocontrol actions were significantly higher in 6 isolates of rhizospheric Trichoderma and 10 isolates of endophytic Trichoderma compared to other isolates. The greenhouse evaluation of individual application of these rhizospheric and endophytic Trichoderma isolates against Fusarium wilt pathogen in cv. Grand Naine (AAA) indicated significant suppression of Fusarium wilt disease and increased plant growth characters as compared to Foc pathogen inoculated plants. However, none of these individual Trichoderma isolates recorded complete suppression of Fusarium wilt disease. Therefore, the greenhouse evaluation involving combination of rhizospheric Trichoderma sp. NRCB3 + endophytic Trichoderma asperellum Prr2 recorded 100% reduction of Fusarium wilt disease and increased plant growth parameters up to 250% when compared to individual isolates application and Foc alone-inoculated plants. Further, the field evaluation of this combination of Trichoderma isolates applied for three times: (1) at 15 days before planting, (2) second month after planting and (3) fourth month after planting resulting in significant reduction of Fusarium wilt disease and also increase in bunch weight as compared to untreated control plants. Therefore, these Trichoderma isolates may be used in combination for the effective suppression of Fusarium wilt disease in banana. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Ravi I.,National Research Center for Banana | Uma S.,National Research Center for Banana | Vaganan M.M.,National Research Center for Banana | Mustaffa M.M.,National Research Center for Banana
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2013

Drought has emerged as one of the major constraints in banana production. Its effects are pronounced substantially in the tropics and sub-tropics of the world due to climate change. Bananas are quite sensitive to drought; however, genotypes with "B" genome are more tolerant to abiotic stresses than those solely based on "A" genome. In particular, bananas with "ABB" genomes are more tolerant to drought and other abiotic stresses than other genotypes. A good phenotyping plan is a prerequisite for any improvement program for targeted traits. In the present article, known drought tolerant traits of other crop plants are validated in bananas with different genomic backgrounds and presented. Since, banana is recalcitrant to breeding, strategies for making hybrids between different genomic backgrounds are also discussed. Stomatal conductance, cell membrane stability (CMS), leaf emergence rate, rate of leaf senescence, RWC, and bunch yield under soil moisture deficit stress are some of the traits associated with drought tolerance. Among these stress bunch yield under drought should be given top priority for phenotyping. In the light of recently released Musa genome draft sequence, the molecular breeders may have interest in developing molecular markers for drought resistance. © 2013 Ravi, Uma, Vaganan and Mustaffa.


Uma S.,National Research Center for Banana | Arun K.,National Research Center for Banana
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2016

Success in banana breeding and hybrid development has remained elusive in spite of broad diversity for fertility status. Although key factors, including ploidy, diverse genomic constitution, and male and/or female sterility, have been studied, the basic research to understand their reproductive ecology is limited. Studies on adaptive significance of traits involved in ontogeny in flowering, as well as of factors involved in pollination, fertilization, compatibility, seed production; regeneration, dormancy and so forth need emphasis. Two years data from NRCB provided a baseline on cross compatibility and improved seed set even under high temperature (by 1-3°C). Two different cultivars were used as female parents [Kothia (ABB genome, Bluggoe subgroup) and Udhayam (ABB genome, Pisang Awak subgroup)] and Calcutta-4 (Musa acuminata) as the male parent. Studies have been conducted to understand the basis of sterility through physical, physiological and biochemical factors affecting stigma compatibility. Time course germination of pollen grains was studied to understand the structural incompatibility regulating seed set. Such basic ecological and morpho-molecular studies, and those on biomolecules involved in reproduction can lead to understanding of mechanisms involved in seed set and could help diversify strategies for banana improvement.

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