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Lopez-Lopez R.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Forestales Agricolas Y Pecuarias Inifap | Inzunza-Ibarra M.A.,National Research Center Disciplinaria en Relacion Agua Suelo Planta Atmosfera | Sanchez-Cohen I.,National Research Center Disciplinaria en Relacion Agua Suelo Planta Atmosfera | Fierro-Alvarez A.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Sifuentes-Ibarra E.,Campo Experimental Valle del Fuerte CIRNO INIFAP
Water Science and Technology

Habanero pepper production was assessed with drip irrigation and plastic mulch, based on two transplanting dates. The objectives of the study were: (i) to evaluate the effect of two transplanting dates and the use of plastic mulch on water productivity and habanero pepper fruit yield under drip irrigation conditions; and (ii) to determine the profitability and economic viability of the product in the regional market. The work was conducted in the municipality of Huimanguillo, state of Tabasco, Mexico, in loam soils classified as Eutric Fluvisol. The Jaguar variety of habanero pepper, developed by INIFAP and possessing better genetic and productive characteristics, was used. Two transplanting dates were studied, (i) 30 January 2013 and (ii) 15 February 2013, with and without plastic mulch. The conclusions were: (i) application of irrigation depths based on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and plastic mulch transplanted on 30 January increased the fruit yield of the crop and improved the benefit-cost ratio of the production system; and (ii) water use efficiency based on the 30 January transplanting date was 8.68 kg m-3 of water applied with plastic mulch, 6.51 kg m-3 without plastic mulch, and 3.65 kg m-3 for the 15 February transplanting date with plastic mulch. © IWA Publishing 2015. Source

Gutierrez C. J.L.,Technological Institute of Torreon | Gonzalez C. G.,National Research Center Disciplinaria en Relacion Agua Suelo Planta Atmosfera | Segura C. M.A.,Technological Institute of Torreon | Sanchez C. I.,National Research Center Disciplinaria en Relacion Agua Suelo Planta Atmosfera | And 2 more authors.

Leonardite is an oxidized form of lignite carbon, which is obtained from fossilized organic materials. Such materials are used for the extraction of humic acids (HA). The result of the addition of HA of organic origin on soil structure is known; however, the effects of adding HA of Leonardite on soil structure have been scarcely investigated. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine the influence of humic acids derived from Leonardite in increasing the aggregate stability of an Aridisol under greenhouse conditions, and (2) evaluate the morphology of the root xylem during the phenological development of melon plants (Cucumis melo L.). Three treatments of HA solution application to the soil were used: soil without solution application (HA0), and application of HA solution to the soil with pH 6 (HA6) or (HA7). Aggregate stability (As) and bulk density (Da) were evaluated as soil variables. Development and quantification of xylem area were studied on plants. There were significant differences in aggregate stability. Also, there was an increase in the root xylem area, and the best treatment was when AH7 solution was applied. Humic acids derived from Leonardite increased the stability of soil aggregates when plants grew under greenhouse conditions, and fostered the development of xylem conduits during the fruiting stage. © 2015, Fund Roulo Raggio. All rights reserved. Source

Figueroa-Viramontes U.,INIFAP | Delgado J.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Cueto-Wong J.A.,National Research Center Disciplinaria en Relacion Agua Suelo Planta Atmosfera | Nunez-Hernandez G.,INIFAP | And 2 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment

Although nitrogen inputs to agricultural fields are necessary for global food sustainability, they present a major nutrient management challenge, because nitrogen inputs can increase nitrogen losses to the environment, which can negatively impact water quality across key surface and groundwater resources. The need to evaluate the potential risk of nitrogen losses for a given forage type, management scenario, and field quickly and easily can be met with new tools that assist in environmental risk assessment. An example is the Mexico Nitrogen Index: this new tool aims to help its users quickly evaluate the risk of nitrogen loss for a given field under a given set of management practices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Mexico Nitrogen Index in ranking the risk of nitrogen loss for a given field under a given set of management practices. To perform this evaluation, data for several different management scenarios were collected and entered into the Mexico Nitrogen Index. The capability of the Index to assess the fate and transport of nitrogen and to rank the risk of nitrogen loss was evaluated by comparing predicted soil residual nitrate and forage nitrogen uptake with observed values. Nitrogen fate and transport were accurately predicted under many different scenarios (P< 0.001); for example, the Index was successful in accurately predicting higher potential risk for nitrogen loss for scenarios with excessive nitrogen applications. It was concluded that the Mexico Nitrogen Index can accurately perform these risk assessments and that it has the potential to facilitate communication between scientists, extension personnel and farmers about the effects different management practices may have on nitrogen losses. © 2011. Source

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