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Torres L.,Autonomous University of Tamaulipas | Almazan C.,Autonomous University of Tamaulipas | Ayllon N.,Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM | Galindo R.C.,Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM | And 4 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2011

Background: The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi).Results: A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160) were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets) representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group), reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups) or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups) when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls.Conclusions: These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations. © 2011 Torres et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Torres-Acosta J.F.J.,Autonomous University of Yucatan | Molento M.,Federal University of Parana | Mendoza de Gives P.,National Research Center Disciplinaria en Parasitologia Veterinaria
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2012

The widespread presence of anthelmintic resistant gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in outdoor ruminant production systems has driven the need to identify and develop novel approaches for the control of helminths with the intention to reduce the dependence on commercial anthelmintic drugs. This paper identifies what has been done in Latin America (LA) in terms of estimating the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in ruminant production systems and the application of different novel approaches for the control of helminths in those systems, including research and extension activities. Firstly, the paucity of knowledge of AR is discussed in the context of different countries, as well as, the available economic resources for research, the technical infrastructure available and the practical difficulties of the production systems. It is then proposed that the search for novel approaches is not only driven by AR but also by the need for techniques that are feasible for application by resource-poor farmers in non-commercial subsistence farming systems. However, the commercial benefits of these approaches are often limited and so are funding inputs in most countries. The workers participating in the research into different novel approaches are identified as well as the different methods being studied in the different areas of LA according to their published results. In addition, the difficulties experienced during extension efforts to reach farmers and help them to adopt novel approaches for the control of parasitic nematodes in LA are discussed. The role of regulatory authorities in these countries is discussed as some methods of control might need an official confirmation of their efficacy as well as authorization prior to application as they may affect animal products (i.e. residues) and/or impose a hazard for animal welfare. The role of the pharmaceutical companies is also discussed. © 2011 . Source

Romero-Salas D.,University of Veracruz | Garcia-Vazquez Z.,National Research Center Disciplinaria en Parasitologia Veterinaria | Montiel-Palacios F.,University of Veracruz | Montiel-Pena T.,University of Veracruz | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in 863 female cattle 1 to ≥6 years old from 78 herds of dairy, beef and crossbred cattle in Veracruz, Mexico. Serum samples were tested for the presence of N. caninum antibodies using an ELISA assay. Overall seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies was 26%. By municipality, the highest prevalence was 47.4% and the lowest 6% (p<0.05). By age, the highest prevalence was found in 5 year olds (28%) and the lowest (11.1 %) in 1 year olds (p<0.05). Regarding the breed, the highest seroprevalence was observed in crossbred females (p<0.05). Considering the reproductive status, the highest seroprevalence was in cows with >5 calvings (32.1 %) and the lowest was in pubertal heifers (11.1%; p<0.05). Seroprevalence was 26.2% in homebred and 23% in purchased animals (p>0.05). Prevalence in females with a history of abortions was 40 and 26.2% in females with no records of previous abortions (p<0.05). The results show that bovine neosporosis is widespread in the State of Veracruz, Mexico, as in other regions of the country. © Medwell Journals, 2010. Source

Alvarado-Esquivel C.,Mexico State University | Romero-Salas D.,University of Veracruz | Garcia-Vazquez Z.,National Research Center Disciplinaria en Parasitologia Veterinaria | Crivelli-Diaz M.,University of Veracruz | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2014

Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs has epidemiological concern for its contributing role in human infections. We determined seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 402 domestic pigs raised in backyards in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT; cut off 1:25); 182 (45.3 %) of the 402 pigs were seropositive with MAT titers of 1:25 in 28, 1:50 in 22, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 30, 1:400 in 35, 1:800 in 23, 1:1,600 in 11, and 1:3,200 or higher in 15. Seropositive pigs were found in 137 (53.3 %) of 257 homes in all 7 municipalities surveyed. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii seropositivity in pigs was associated with tropical-humid climate (OR = 4.32; 95 % CI 1.47-12.62; P = 0.007) of the raising municipalities, feeding with leftovers (OR = 2.83; 95 % CI 1.01-7.91; P = 0.04), storing pig food in the owner's home (OR = 2.39; 95 % CI 1.09-5.22; P = 0.02), and free ranging (OR = 3.48; 95 % CI 1.49-8.15; P = 0.003). Results indicate that backyard pigs in Veracruz have the highest seroprevalence of T. gondii infection obtained by MAT in pigs studied in Mexico so far. The correlates of T. gondii infection found in the present study may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against T. gondii infection in pigs. Results also remark the risk of T. gondii infection in humans by ingestion of raw or undercook pork in Mexico. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Pardo J.R.G.S.,Confederacion Nacional de Organizaciones Ganaderas | Ortiz R.H.,National Research Center Disciplinaria en Parasitologia Veterinaria
Revista Mexicana De Ciencias Pecuarias | Year: 2012

It addresses the importance of exports of live cattle to the United States, highlighting the business value that represents for Mexico's foreign exchange earnings by 700 billion per year for this purpose. Livestock marketing is hampered by sanitary barriers, such as tuberculosis (TB), brucellosis and ticks. A bi-national group of experts to address these issues has been formed. On the matter of ticks, a collaboration program between both countries has been established, in order to identify tick species and traceability of the quarantined cases, from the border to its origin in various Mexican states. A project was generated along the border for the eradication of Boophilus ticks in the Mexican states bordering Texas, consisting of identifying infected farms, acaricide treatment and inspection of cattle for export to the United States. The actions that both countries are doing to eradicate Boophilus ticks on the border and to prevent the arrival of cattle ticks into the export quarantine stations are discussed. The conclusion stresses the need to strengthen and improve these programs. Source

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