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Calciu I.,National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science | Vizitiu O.,National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science | Simota C.,National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science | Simota C.,University of Soil Science and Veterinary Medicine
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM | Year: 2014

Use of renewable energy resources is regulated by EU Directive 2009/28/CE from April 23rd 2009. The reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions coming from the biofuels and bioliquids use is calculated according to the Article 19 of the Directive and is based on typical and default values. In this study the coefficients for rape crop (typical emissions of greenhouse gas -g CO2 ech MJ-1 were evaluated at NUTS3 level (county) taking into account the pedoclimatic and technological conditions of Romania. The evaluation of greenhouse gas emissions and of energy consumptions within the whole production chain of biodiesel was done by using three different computing programs: Greenhouse Gas Calculator – version 2.1b/2008; Greenhouse Gas Calculator for bioethanol and biodiesel designed in 2005 by Environmental Policy Center of Imperial College from London and adapted to the Directive requirements in 2009; Carbon Calculator – version 1.1 designed by E4Tech for Renewable Fuels Agency from UK. These programs were used for different crop production levels: multiannual national average for the period of 1991-2011 provided by National Institute of Statistics; the lower level of crop production defined as difference between multiannual average and standard deviation of crop production years; the upper level of the crop production defined as sum between multiannual average and standard deviation of crop production years; crop production for which the default values of crop coefficients are given in Annex V/part D. The aggregation of information on greenhouse gas emissions (g CO2 ech MJ-1) at NUTS3 level corresponding to the fourth levels of crop production was done as an average of emissions from each soil-terrain unit under arable land use. The results obtained using three computing programs showed that the dependence between greenhouse gas emissions specific to rape crop (g CO2 ech MJ-1) and crop yield (t ha-1) are similar. The E4Tech model was then used for evaluation of spatial distribution of emissions. It was used the dependence between typical greenhouse gas emissions specific to rape crop and crop yield (optimum technology: multiannual average, multiannual average ± standard deviation; actual technology: multiannual average). The aggregation of these results at NUTS3 level showed that in the case of optimum technology most of the counties with arable land use have average values ranging within the default values for typical emissions included in the Directive. In case of actual technology, the average counties values of greenhouse gas emissions for the entire production cycle of biodiesel obtained from rape (based on the average production of rape at national level for the 1991-2011 period) are much higher than the typical and default values given in Annex V/part A of the Directive. In case of crop production obtained in favorable years (average production + standard deviation) and in optimum technology the average values are regularly lower than typical and default values from the Directive. In case of non-favorable years (average production - standard deviation) and in optimum technology all counties have average values of greenhouse gas emissions higher than typical and default values from Directive. © SGEM2014.

Viztiu O.,National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science | Calciu I.,National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science | Simota C.,National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science | Mihalache M.,University of Soil Science and Veterinary Medicine
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM | Year: 2015

Today in Romania about 7 mil. ha are affected by drought as a limiting factor for crops. A modern method possibly to be used at farm level in drought conditions is to incorporate superabsorbent materials in soils. These materials have the property to retain water, to further release it in conditions of water scarcity or precipitation lack over a longer interval, especially during the growing season of cultivated crops. The superabsorbent tested in this study is made of maize starch, is structurally made up of solid granules, is biodegradable and non-toxic and have the capacity to retain 500 times more water than their mass. The experimental sites were located in private farms in Pecica, Arad, in fields with oat, onion and water melon crops and consisted of variants in which two doses of superabsorbent were applied (6 Kg/ha and 12 Kg/ha) and a control variant. The volume of soil water at rooting depth that is readily available to plants has a very important role in increasing plant productivity and was measured by determining the soil water retention capacity. Water retention measurements were done on undisturbed soil samples at three depths (5-10 cm, 15-20 cm, 25-30 cm) using laboratory standardized equipments. Measured values of soil moisture are used for calculating the van Genuchten equation parameters and then soil water retention curves were estimated. Study results showed that mobility and availability of water are higher in treated variants than in the control one as a result of superabsorbent application in top-soil layers. Highest values of plant available water were recorded in variant where 12 kg of superabsorbent was applied in oat and onion fields at 15 – 20 cm depth, whereas in water melon field the highest value for available water was determined in variant with 12 kg of superabsorbent at 5 – 10 cm depth. Also it was noticed that in oat field in the variant with 12 kg of Zeba applied, at 15-20 cm depth, in onion field in variant with 12 kg of superabsorbent, at 5-10 cm and 15-20 cm depths and in water melon field in variant with 12 kg of superabsorbent, at 5-10 cm and 25-30 cm depths, the water is strongly retained in soil at lower levels of suction, whereas at pF values higher than 2.5 the water retained in soil starts to be slowly released during the drought periods, when there is no any water supply. © 2014, SGEM. All Rights Reserved.

Molin P.,Third University of Rome | Fubelli G.,Third University of Rome | Nocentini M.,Third University of Rome | Sperini S.,Third University of Rome | And 4 more authors.
Global and Planetary Change | Year: 2012

Tectonic processes and dynamic mantle flow impart a unique imprint on topography and geomorphic responses over time scales of 10 4 to 10 6yr. First-order topographic features in a tectonically active landscape represent ways to quantitatively characterise the interaction between crustal tectonics, mantle dynamics, and geomorphology, providing a basis for modelling landscape evolution. We analysed the topographic features of the Romanian Carpathians, a mountain range characterised by two straight segments connected by a narrow curvature zone. The deformation started in the Late Jurassic and includes two collisional phases during the Cretaceous and Miocene. We examined the tectonic geomorphology of the Romanian Carpathians focusing on regional and local topographic setting, drainage pattern, and river long profiles. Our main database is composed of DEM-based topographic analysis, supplemented with field investigations in the Slǎnic River basin, located in the Carpathian curvature zone. The longitudinal profiles of rivers draining the southern Carpathians are close to the equilibrium shape, in agreement with the older emersion of the chain. The longitudinal profiles of the rivers draining the eastern and southeastern Carpathians are in a transient state of disequilibrium as a consequence of a more recent emersion of the chain and of the Pliocene-Pleistocene tectonic activity in the Bend Zone. Filtering the topography at different wavelengths, we observe a relative depression in correspondence with the Carpathian Bend, where mantle seismicity and a high-velocity zone in tomography data are located and commonly interpreted as related to an almost inactive and dying subduction zone. Contrastingly, the filtered topography presents a high in the Transylvanian basin, where tomography data show a low-velocity area, interpreted as upwelling of hot asthenospheric materials. We hypothesise that local mantle convection generates positive and negative dynamic topographies. In the Slǎnic River basin, the foredeep deposits (Middle Miocene-Upper Pliocene) are folded and tilted, suggesting active compression beginning in the Lower Pleistocene. During the Middle-Late Pleistocene and Holocene, four terrace orders developed by the interaction between regional uplift and climate changes. The Carpathian topography results from a diachronous uplift superimposed on crustal tectonics. This diachronous uplift influenced the chain topography, the shape of river longitudinal profiles, and the formation of strath terraces. Crustal tectonics dominated the hydrographic net organisation. In correspondence with the Carpathian Bend and the Transylvanian basin, mantle flow driven by slab pull produced negative and positive dynamic topographies. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Vespremeanu-Stroe A.,University of Bucharest | Preoteasa L.,University of Bucharest | Hanganu D.,National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science | Brown A.G.,University of Southampton | And 3 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2013

Histria (Istros) is one of the earliest Milesian colonies founded on the Black Sea coast during the archaic period (7th c. BC). Its remains are located within what is today the Razelm-Sinoe lagoon system which forms the southern part of the Danube Delta. During its 13 centuries of existence, Histria experienced an environment favourable for a prosperous economy (e.g. fishery, farming, grazing, pottery, marine trades) as indicated by numerous archeological finds from both in situ and elsewhere in the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea basins. Moreover, it benefited from a strategic position on an open-coast, which was easy to defend. Important environmental changes occurred both during and after the existence of the ancient city, and the most significant are related to major shoreline displacement.This study reports Late Holocene coastal landscape changes, from the open-coast stage to the present-day lagoon system, based on numerical age determination of the paleoshorelines, stratigraphic records by cores in lagoons and beach ridges and topographic surveys. A new chronological framework is established which reports younger ages than previously suggested for the coastal morphosedimentary units of the Histria region. Further, the findings shed new light upon the evolution of the southern part of the Danube delta. The results point to the development of an ancient deltaic lobe (Dunavâţ lobe, 2000-1300 BP, associated with the southernmost Danube distributary) which was situated 10-20 km north of the settlement. The lobe was subsequently reworked by waves, providing sediments which were accumulated downdrift (southward) as a continuous beach ridge plain (Saele-Chituc) in front of the city, leading to its isolation from the sea. The abandonment of Histria (7th c. AD) coincides with the decoupling of the city from the open coast as a consequence of the shoreline progradation. The new beach ridge plain (Saele-Chituc) is affected by intense neotectonic movements which led to the recent drowning of its central part and the formation of Sinoe lagoon; the same processes affected the downdrift part of the Dunavâţ lobe and Histria and Nuntaşi Lakes. The new sea-level curve obtained for the Histria region shows relative stability within the last four millennia, with oscillations within 0 to -2 m of the current level. This contradicts the concept of a marine regression (Phanagorian) which is suggested to have occurred during the 1st millennium BC. However, a few areas containing archeological remains are currently below sea-level owing to local neotectonics. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Ionut T.R.,University of Bucharest | Petre V.,National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science | Daniela R.,National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science | Valerica T.,University of Bucharest | Adrian A.,University of Bucharest
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM | Year: 2015

The air permeability has been sporadically studied in Romania, even if its data are useful in the characterization of soil pores. The paper emphasize the study of the physical processes involved in air regime of a clayey-loam soil, the factors that determined its aeration status, as well as the influence of biological activity on soil aeration. The researchers were performed in Marculesti area, located in the southern part of Romania. The soil is a clayey-loam Cambic Chernozem, formed in loess like deposits. The bioclimatic zone is steppe, while the climate is temperate continental, with an average annual temperature of 10.6°C and an average annual precipitation of 480 mm. The soil was sampled in autumn, after harvesting and crop transportation, when soil compaction is very high, in cylinders (235.6 cm3) from the three depth of the upper part of the soil (0 - 50 cm) representing the active rooting zone. The data showed that, the air regime of the studied soil was evaluated by the aim of the two indicators of the air content: the limit of aeration (LA) and the index of aeration deficiency (Ida): the values obtained for the studied soil showed an optimum LA for the all studied horizons; the values obtained for Ida were negative, pointing out the fully satisfactory aeration of the studied soil. The air permeability measurements showed high values throughout the studied soil profile, especially in the lower Am horizon, unaffected by tillage. The data of the image analysis of the pore distribution, characterized by their shape and size, showed the higher value 0.25 m2m-2 in the deeper Am horizon and the lower one in the more compacted Apt horizon, 0.14 m2m-2. The micromorphological observations on soil thin sections pointed out the dominance of the porosity generated by soil macro- and mezofauna (more preserved in Am and more collapsed and integrated in Ap and Apt soil matrix, under compacted processes). The air regime of the soil was influenced by the biological activity, which improved pore volume and generated continuous pores. The high values of permeability for air may also be due to the increased numbers of cracks, which created preferential paths of water and air circulation. © SGEM2015 All Rights Reserved.

Lacatusu R.,National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science | Lacatusu R.,Al. I. Cuza University | Lacatusu A.-R.,National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science | Stanciuburileanu M.M.,National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science | And 4 more authors.
Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2012

It is presented the possibility to reduce contents of heavy metals (cadmium, zinc) in a sludge proceeded from the wastewater treatment plant of Iaşi Municipality. The sludge was deposited, for over 10 years, in a mud pond with a surface about 15 ha, placed on a calcareous and salinised alluvial soil. For this purpose, it is proposed using the spontaneous flora, which has been settled in a period of four years after closure of the deposit. The flora has been predominantly composed of Phragmytes australis, and also other species such as Rumex acetosela, Chenopodium album, Aster panonicum, Solanum nigrum and others. These plants accumulated in their roots and in the aerial part cadmium (Cd) quantities, which exceed up to 60, respectively 14 times the normal values. Similarly, zinc (Zn) has been concentrated in the roots and aerial parts 33 times, 18 times respectively. The transfer (TF) and bioaccumulation (BAF) factors' values highlight the plants' feature to accumulate heavy metals from the sludge. The plants can be arranged in a decreasing series of the accumulated heavy metals (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc), thus Rumex acetosela, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium album, Aster panonicum and Phragmytes australis. Applying phytoextraction of polluting heavy metals only by annual harvesting of aerial part of the spontaneous flora now existing, will bring the sewage sludge to a normal content level of these heavy metals in a period of up to 450 years. If the harvest will include also the roots, the time necessary to decontaminate the sludge could be reduced with 50-60 %. In addition, the change of floristic composition so that Rumex and Solanum genus are becoming dominant, could lead to a significant reducing of phytoremediation period.

Stefanescu S.L.,Project Management Unit MAKIS CESAR MADR | Steriu S.,Project Management Unit MAKIS CESAR MADR | Dumitrascu M.,National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science
Romanian Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

Looking to develop the national institutional capacity for implementing the new requirements and to improve the flow of information on EU standards related to production, a joint World Bank and Romanian Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Project successfully set up Training and Information Centers in the main regions in Romania, as knowledge resource bases for improvement and updating the professional capacity of the research, extension and food safety specialists. Positive effects at farmer level are expected to appear towards the end of the Project, due to receiving up-to date information/advice from the agricultural consultants, better technologies available from the research institutes and improved practices regarding food safety. A strategy document has been developed, aiming to back up the sustainable development of the Centers. The document recommended that the training programs should be addressed in the future also to other target groups. Training and Information Centers would continue to meet the training needs with further expected Governmental employed trainings, applications on EU funded projects as well as training to private sector on fee basis.

Lacatusu A.-R.,National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science | Cocarta D.,Polytechnic University of Bucharest | Lacatusu R.,National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science | Lacatusu R.,Al. I. Cuza University
Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2013

The paper presents the results of bioremediation experiment conducted in order to determine the effectiveness of this method for the decontamination of a soil historically contaminated with heavy metals and artificially controlled with two of the most aggressive group of organic pollutants: hydrocarbons from crude petroleum and polychlorinated biphenyls from transformer oil. The experiment followed how a heavy metals polluted soil respond to innoculation with heterotrophyc bacteria selected for their ability to metabolize the petroleum hydrocarbons and / or polychlorinated biphenyls, the effects exerted by heavy metal pollution on soil capacity to initiate and supports its own decontamination mechanisms. To implement full-scale bioremediation, the soil from Copşa Micǎ, historically contaminated with heavy metals, after it has been excavated was transported and disposed on a waterproofed platform in 0.2 m thickness layers, which were controlled contaminated with crude oil and transformers oil, resulting four experimental variants to whom technological elements of the bioremediation process were applied. Monitoring soil quality parameters: pH, organic carbon content, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, mobile phosphorus and potassium contents and the soil loading degree with inorganic pollutants, heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn , Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Cd) and organic: total petroleum hydrocarbons (THP) and polychlorinated-biphenyls (PCBs) was performed at 1 month, 3, 5 and 10 months after controlled pollution application. The data obtained have been interpreted dynamically, and comparisons were made between the four experimental variants. Biodegradation efficiency analysis of the two categories of pollutants (TPH and PCBs) applied to soil by controlled pollution, shows that ex situ bioremediation method is definitely favorable for hydrocarbons polluted soil remediation. The data obtained until 10 months from when controlled pollution of soil it was carried out, although representing a favorable method for bioremediation even in the case polychlorinated-biphenyls pollution are not yet defining and conclusive. Well known molecular recalcitrance of these compounds prevents the attack of microorganisms and their inherent toxicity affects the adaptability and multiplication of microorganisms with the ability to break-down the phenolic nuclei, and initiate biodegradation.

Munteanu I.,National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science | Ignat P.,National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science
Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

The Northern Dobrudgea consists of Palaeozoic and Triassic formations, geologically being one of the oldest regions of Romania. In this area, in post tertiary times, pedogenesis and sedimentogenesis may be differentiated into two main periods: before and synchronous with quaternary loess deposits and soil development. During the first period, the sedimentogenesis seems to have been weak and pedogenesis strong. The soil cover developed on the account of Paleozoic and Triassic rocks. The pedogenesis would be of "denudational - compensative" type. The soil cover developed then, have been subsequently destroyed by erosion or buried beneath quaternary sediments (mainly loess deposits) either. The remnants preserved on some cretaceous surfaces (of residual relief) witness that the soils were deep, clayey and red similar to the present day Haplic Luvisols (Rhodic-Abruptic). They may belong to the end of Pliocene or to the beginning of Quaternary. The second period is characterized by the interference of pedogenesis and intense sedimentogenesis generated by wind-borne dust fall-out and formation of sequences consisting of soils, loess and loess-like deposits. The loess layers and associated fossil-soils strips formed during that period may be considered as complex entities and called "Pedolithological complexes". The pedogenesis of this period is of "sedialternating" type. This means that the periods with prevailing pedogenesis alternated with those of prevailing sedimentogenesis. The thickness of "pedolithological complexes" varies from 3-5 m on highlands up to 15-25 m in low-lying areas and inner depressions of the region. The upper part of them is of Würmian and Holocene age but some basal layers may be Rissian even Mindelian. For spatial juxtapositions of palaeosols and actual soils the term "chronopedogeographic discontinuity or contrast" has been introduced.

Manea A.,National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM | Year: 2015

The main responsible for pollution occurring along the Ampoi River is the ore processing plant, "S.C. Ampellum Zlatna", an industrial unit specialized in copper metallurgy and chemistry. Activity of non-ferrous metallurgical plant from Zlatna caused the release directly to atmosphere of high levels of heavy metal emissions, most of them being later deposited on soil. The objective of this paper is to assess the spatial distribution of copper (total forms) in Zlatna area. The study of soil copper content revealed high copper contents levels in Zlatna area, while in the strongly affected area the intervention thresholds for less sensitive land uses are exceeded. The general trend shows a statistically decrease in the content of copper with the distance from the pollution source. On the East direction, the presence of soil copper has been reported over longer distances from the pollution source compared to other directions. The prevailing wind direction had an important role in the dispersion of copper emissions. © SGEM2015.

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