National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND

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National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND

Romania
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Bucur E.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Bucur E.,University of Bucharest | Danet A.F.,University of Bucharest | Lehr C.B.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association | Year: 2017

This paper presents a new way to assess the environmental impact on historical artifacts using binary logistic regression. The prediction of the impact on the exhibits during certain pollution scenarios (environmental impact) was calculated by a mathematical model based on the binary logistic regression; it allows the identification of those environmental parameters from a multitude of possible parameters with a significant impact on exhibitions and ranks them according to their severity effect. Air quality (NO2, SO2, O3 and PM2.5) and microclimate parameters (temperature, humidity) monitoring data from a case study conducted within exhibition and storage spaces of the Romanian National Aviation Museum Bucharest have been used for developing and validating the binary logistic regression method and the mathematical model. The logistic regression analysis was used on 794 data combinations (715 to develop of the model and 79 to validate it) by a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0). The results from the binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated that from six parameters taken into consideration, four of them present a significant effect upon exhibits in the following order: O3>PM2.5>NO2>humidity followed at a significant distance by the effects of SO2 and temperature. The mathematical model, developed in this study, correctly predicted 95.1 % of the cumulated effect of the environmental parameters upon the exhibits. Moreover, this model could also be used in the decisional process regarding the preventive preservation measures that should be implemented within the exhibition space. Implications: The paper presents a new way to assess the environmental impact on historical artifacts using binary logistic regression. The mathematical model developed on the environmental parameters analyzed by the binary logistic regression method could be useful in a decision-making process establishing the best measures for pollution reduction and preventive preservation of exhibits. © 2017 A&WMA.


Diodiu R.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Diodiu R.,Babes - Bolyai University | Bucur E.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Bucur E.,University of Bucharest | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology | Year: 2015

The aim of this article was to evaluate and compare the levels of aldehydes and ketones in indoor air of a new office building in rooms with new and old furniture. The sampling method involved both passive cartridges and silica gel DNPH-coated tubes. Aldehydes and ketones levels were quantified using a DNPH-derivatisation method followed by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection for 14 aldehydes and ketones. The results obtain showed that both active and passive sampling methods can be used for indoor air aldehydes and ketones assessment depending on what you intend to achieve: long-term average or short-term monitoring. Results revealed that higher concentrations of aldehydes and ketones were found in rooms with new furniture compared to rooms with relative old furniture, making new furniture a possible source of aldehydes and ketones.


Bucur E.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Bucur E.,University of Bucharest | Danet A.F.,University of Bucharest | Lehr C.B.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | And 2 more authors.
Revista de Chimie | Year: 2016

National Museum of Romanian Aviation is the only museum of its kind in the country who holds in a historical succession the evolution of the Romanian aeronautics starting from Traian Vuia and Aurel Vlaicu until today. Documents, models and aircraft exhibited in the museum, many of them being unique, can be irreversibly degraded under the action of chemical air contaminants and/or inadequate microclimate conditions. The article presents the results of air quality assessment within the main exhibition space of the museum, Hangar 1, obtained in a study organized in 2014-2015. Given the specific of the museum and its location, in a city with intense traffic, both indoor and outdoor concentrations of NO2, SO2, CO, O3, PM2.5 and microclimate parameters (temperature and relative humidity) were monitored. Monitoring results showed lower concentrations indoor than outdoor, I/O ratios fits in the interval [0.32; 0.8] except CO with an I/O ratio situated close to the value 1. Averages concentrations were below those recommended by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) for air chemical pollutants measured inside the museum, except ozone concentration whose average is in the hot season slightly above the recommended limit but below the lower intervention limit, 50 μg/m3. Microclimate parameter values also fall into a range that implies reduced risk for various objects and books according to ASHRAE; diurnal variations of microclimate parameters do not represent a danger for the exhibits in the museum, also. Analyzing the information obtained by monitoring indoor air quality and statistical interpretation of these data (I/O ratios, diagrams, Spearman correlation analysis) we can say that the air inside Hangar 1 and microclimate conditions provided do not raise major problems for long-term conservation of the exhibits in the museum and do not require additional measures in terms of air quality and microclimate parameters.


Bucur E.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Petrescu M.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Vasile G.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Pascu L.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Diodiu R.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM | Year: 2014

This paper presents the results of an indoor air quality monitoring study conducted in an office building located on the outskirts of Bucharest, in an area characterized by low traffic and no major industrial pollution sources, during the summer of 2013, from 14thof June to 3rdof July. The aim was to determine the concentration of particulate matter dimensional fractions PM2.5 (particulate nominal diameter less than 2.5μm), PM10 (particulate nominal diameter less than 10μm), Total Suspended Particles (TSP), the PM2.5 and PM10 percent from TSP, metals and also the water-soluble anions present in the particulate matter in indoor air. The concentration of particulate matter varies widely from a minimum of 11.93μg/m3 for PM2.5 in weekend up to a maximum of 86.75μg/m3 in a working day with intense activity. The PM2.5 average concentration for the period was 42.64±28.28μg/m3; for PM10 it was determined a period average of 44.09±28.29μg/m3 and 46.44±30.41μg/m3 for TSP. The particulate matter are composed mostly of fine particles; so PM10 contains a 96% of PM2.5 and total suspended particulates are form from 91% of PM2.5. Analysis by ICP- EOS technique for the acid mineralization of the particulate matter retained on the filters lead to the identification of 15 metals: K, Ca, Fe, Al, Na, Mg, Pb, Zn, Ni, Ba, Cu, Ti, Mn, As, Cr. The metal content in the three dimensional fractions is different, indicating the probability existence of an indoor source for particulate matter with metals. Regarding the content of water-soluble anion in the three dimensional fractions, were identified following ions: NO3 -> SO4 2-> Cl -> F -> PO4 3-> NO2 -. Pearson Correlation Analysis indicated a high correlation between all the dimensional particulate fractions and also between metals and anions present in particulate matter. As so, the correlation coefficients for metals have values of R=0.96 for PM2.5/PM10; R=0.93 and R=0.88 for TSP/PM10 for PM2.5/TSP. The high correlations were maybe obtained due to the composition of the PM10 and the TSP, both consisting in PM2.5 particulates in percentage of over 90%. ©, 2014, SGEM2014.


Gheorghe S.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Lucaciu I.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Grumaz R.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND
Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology | Year: 2011

Detergents industry is a competitive industry, with a large opening to innovation and economical development. Although very useful for sanitation, the big domestic and industrial detergents consumption has a significant contribution to surfactants concentrations increase in towns sewage and implicit to surface water contamination. At European level, detergents and cleaning products have a special place in legislative framework of the European Community because are manufactured in big quantity and they may affect the environment both during manufacture and using processes. In the last years surfactants biodegradability was the most significant problem. For this reason, at European level through Regulation (EC) No 2004/648 (and its next amendments), strict regulations were introduced in order to assure the environment and human health safety. After Romania adhesion to the EU, the European Regulation of detergents becomes also an applicable law at national level through Governmental Decision No 658 /2007. The present paper wants to give a special attention for the following aspects: (1) the national and international legislative framework concerning the commercial surfactants - products for human use, in order to assure their free circulation on the market; (2) the requirements of Detergents European Regulation concerning the final biodegradability of surfactants and complementary risk assessment for their potential recalcitrant metabolites on aquatic organisms; (3) the most practical and sensible methods for surfactants ecotoxicological testing.


Bucur E.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Ionita L.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Nicolescu I.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Petrescu M.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND
Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology | Year: 2010

Fine particles (smaller than 2.5 (μm) penetrate more deeply into the lungs than coarse particles (2.5-10 μm). Recent health studies indicate a link between fine particle concentrations in the outdoor air and certain health effects. Adverse health effects from breathing air with a high PM2.5 concentration include: premature death, increasedrespiratory symptoms and disease, chronic bronchitis, and decreased lung function particularly for individuals with asthma. In an effort to reduce and control the hazards associated with PM2.5, EPA (Ecological Protection Agency) issued federal standards in 1997 tobe complied on a county basis. The guidance on monitoring published by EPA emphasises placing monitors in areas impacted by fine particles that are also locations where people live, work, or play. The study covered by the present project is referred to determination over three years of the pollution level with PM2.5 particulate matter in areas with intense road traffic and assessment of this pollution on population health. This will bedone by means of specific test, in a first phase for respiratory function, ventilator functions, respectively, and in a second phase the characteristic tests for the presence of poly- and mono-nuclear hydrocarbons in particulate matter. The tests in the second phase will include the tests for dosing α1, antitripsina, 1 hydroxypyreneand S-phenylmercaptic acid on batches of exposed and control human subjects. The present paper will present the level of pollution with PM2.5 in the area of interest. This levelis based on measurement conducted according with SR EN 14907/2006 standard requirements.Also, the paper will present the dynamic of daily pollution level evolution in correlation with road traffic, both for cold and hot seasons.


Vasile G.G.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Marin N.M.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Cruceru L.V.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Simion M.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | And 2 more authors.
Revista de Chimie | Year: 2016

This paper presents a method for mercur y determination in water samples, at trace level using Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometr y (CVAFS). Mono, divalent mercury and organo-mercur y compounds are converted to divalent mercury by oxidation with KbrO3-KBr in hydrochloric acid, as a result of Br and BrCl reaction. Before the analyses, the excess of Br is removed by ascorbic acid. The divalent mercur y is then reduced to the elemental form using 20 g/L tin chloride in acid medium, purged with argon in a hygroscopic membrane in order to retain humidity and then withhold on a gold trap. Gold trap is used to concentrate Hg vapor prior to detection. After heating the trap, mercury is detected using an ozone-free Hg lamp. The analytical performance parameters of the method have been investigated (detection limit, quatification limit, working range, precision, recovery). The method is suitable for determination of ultra-trace mercury content from drinking, surface and wastewater samples.


Gheorghe S.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Vasile G.G.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Stoica C.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Lazar M.N.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | And 2 more authors.
Revista de Chimie | Year: 2016

Four types of urban sewage sludge were tested to estimate their effects on higher plants (Lepidium sativum - LES, Sinapis alba - SIA and Sorgum saccharatum - SOS) highlighting their reusable potential. Seeds germination and roots growth inhibition were used as parameters to measure the phytotoxic sensitivities. The tested samples were collected from three Romanian Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs). The chemical investigations of samples revealed metal concentration values within accepted limits except Arsenic, Manganese, Calcium, Iron and Aluminium. The plants expressed different phytotoxic sensitivities related to the contamination level. The seeds germination was inhibited between20 to 100% for LES and SIA and between 25 and 75% for SOS. In case of roots growth, all the tested plants were significant inhibited (28 to 100%). The results indicated that all the samples were toxic for the tested plants, especially for the roots growth. The toxic effects of sludge could be reduced by adding more than 50% unpolluted soil that would allow to be reuse in agriculture as fertilizer. The study has proved that the phytotoxic microbiotests could be used as routine toxicity screening tests to provide rapid and relevant informations for sludge reuse and their environmental risk.


Diodiu R.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Diodiu R.,Babes - Bolyai University | Galaon T.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Bucur E.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Pascu L.F.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND
Revista de Chimie | Year: 2016

Indoor air concentrations of aldehydes and acetone in nineteen houses located in Bucharest (Romania) were determined in this study. Passive sampling was done in bedrooms or living rooms, the air samplers being collected on DSD-DNPH cartridges. Aldehydes and acetone were quantified using a DNPH-derivatization followed by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection analytical method. Results obtain showed the presence of aldehydes in all the houses, with formaldehyde having the highest concentration. Rooms with new furniture (under 1 year) showed the highest concentrations of aldehydes.


Galaon T.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Petre J.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Iancu V.I.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | Cruceru L.,National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology INCD ECOIND | And 3 more authors.
Revista de Chimie | Year: 2016

A sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method with negative electrospray ionization was developed to detect six estrogen hormones from Danube River and three major tributaries (Jiu, Olt and Arges). The method separates the estrogen hormones in 25 min using a C18 end-capped column (150 x 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) kept at 20°C and a mobile phase made of aq. 0.01% NH4OH and MeOH in the ratio 47.5/52.5 (v/v). Elution program allowed baseline separation of the hormones and consisted of an isocratic step (10 min) followed by a slow gradient (2.5%/min) applied in 4 min. Collision energy, fragmentor and capillar y voltages were optimized to increase MS sensitivity. Optimization of LC-MS parameters generated extremely low instrumental LOQ values between 0.06 and 1.1 μg/L. MS detector response was linear in the range 1 ÷ 200 μg/L with R2 > 0.99 for all hormones. SPE using Oasis HLB cartridges was employed to concentrate target analytes from water samples. Intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD%) was situated between 5.7 ÷ 8.9% and 8.4 ÷ 12.6%, respectively. Hormone recover y after SPE was good due to internal standard correction with values between 78 ÷ 110%. Overall method LOQs were situated between 0.2 and 3.3 ng/L. Only Estrone was found in Danube and its tributaries at levels from LOQ to 3.8 ng/L. Higher levels of Estrone were detected in tributaries when compared to Danube. Also locations downstream major cities showed higher levels than upstream ones.

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