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Drumright L.N.,University of California at San Diego | Drumright L.N.,Imperial College London | Hagan H.,National Development and Research Institute | Thomas D.L.,Johns Hopkins University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2011

Background & Aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening can provide opportunities to reduce disease progression through counseling against alcohol use, but empirical data on this issue are sparse. We determined the efficacy of a behavioral intervention in reducing alcohol use among young, HCV-infected injection drug users (IDUs) (n = 355) and assessed whether changes in liver enzymes were associated with changes in alcohol consumption. Methods: Both the intervention and attention-control groups were counseled to avoid alcohol use, but the intervention group received enhanced counseling. Logistic regression, ANOVA, and continuous time Markov models were used to identify factors associated with alcohol use, changes in mean ALT and AST levels, and change in alcohol use post-intervention. Results: Six months post-intervention, alcohol abstinence increased 22.7% in both groups, with no difference by intervention arm. Transition from alcohol use to abstinence was associated with a decrease in liver enzymes, with a marginally greater decrease in the intervention group (p = 0.05 for ALT; p = 0.06 for AST). In multivariate Markov models, those who used marijuana transitioned from alcohol abstinence to consumption more rapidly than non-users (RR = 3.11); those who were homeless transitioned more slowly to alcohol abstinence (RR = 0.47); and those who had ever received a clinical diagnosis of liver disease transitioned more rapidly to abstinence (RR = 1.88). Conclusions: Although, behavioral counseling to reduce alcohol consumption among HCV-infected IDUs had a modest effect, reductions in alcohol consumption were associated with marked improvements in liver function. Interventions to reduce alcohol use among HCV-infected IDUs may benefit from being integrated into clinical care and monitoring of HCV infection. © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Brooks A.C.,Treatment Research Institute | DiGuiseppi G.,Treatment Research Institute | Laudet A.,National Development and Research Institute | Rosenwasser B.,Philadelphia FIGHT | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment | Year: 2012

Training community-based addiction counselors in empirically supported treatments (ESTs) far exceeds the ever-decreasing resources of publicly funded treatment agencies. This feasibility study describes the development and pilot testing of a group counseling toolkit (an approach adapted from the education field) focused on relapse prevention (RP). When counselors (N = 17) used the RP toolkit after 3 hours of training, their content adherence scores on "coping with craving" and "drug refusal skills" showed significant improvement, as indicated by very large effect sizes (Cohen's d = 1.49 and 1.34, respectively). Counselor skillfulness, in the "adequate-to-average" range at baseline, did not change. Although this feasibility study indicates some benefit to counselor EST acquisition, it is important to note that the impact of the curriculum on client outcomes is unknown. Because a majority of addiction treatment is delivered in group format, a multimedia curriculum approach may assist counselors in applying ESTs in the context of actual service delivery. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Windsor L.,Rutgers University | Pinto R.M.,Columbia University | Benoit E.,National Development and Research Institute | Jessell L.,Rutgers University | Jemal A.,Rutgers University
Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions | Year: 2014

Communities with histories of oppression have shown great resilience, yet few health interventions focus on structural oppression as a contributor to health problems in these communities. This article describes the development and active ingredients of Community Wise, a unique behavioral health intervention designed to reduce substance use frequency, related health risk behaviors, and recidivism among individuals with a history of incarceration and substance abuse residing in distressed and predominantly African American communities. Community Wise, developed through the collaborative efforts of a board of service providers, researchers, consumers, and government officials, is a 12-week group intervention that aims to address behavioral health problems by raising critical consciousness in distressed communities. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Morton C.M.,National Development and Research Institute | Simmel C.,Rutgers University | Peterson N.A.,Rutgers University
Child Abuse and Neglect | Year: 2014

This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Rutgers University and National Development and Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Child abuse & neglect | Year: 2014

This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhoods built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed.


Dunlap E.,National Development and Research Institute | Graves J.,Houston Community College | Benoit E.,National Development and Research Institute
International Journal of Drug Policy | Year: 2012

Background: In recent years, numerous weather disasters have crippled many cities and towns across the United States of America. Such disasters present a unique opportunity for analyses of the disintegration and reformulation of drug markets. Disasters present new facts which cannot be "explained" by existing theories. Recent and continuing disasters present a radically different picture from that of police crack downs where market disruptions are carried out on a limited basis (both use and sales). Generally, users and sellers move to other locations and business continues as usual. Methods: The Katrina Disaster in 2005 offered a larger opportunity to understand the functioning and processes by which drug markets may or may not survive. Utilizing a variety of qualitative data including ethnographic field notes, in-depth interview transcripts, and focus group transcripts, we investigate the operation of the New Orleans drug market before, during, and after Hurricane Katrina. Results: Our data clearly indicate that drug markets go through a series of stages in the wake of disaster in which they disintegrate and then reconstitute themselves. In the case of New Orleans, the post-Katrina drug market was radically different from the pre-Katrina drug market. Conclusion: Ultimately this manuscript presents a paradigm which uses stages as a testable concept to scientifically examine the disintegration and reformulation of drug markets during disaster or crisis situations. It describes the specific processes - referred to as stages - which drug markets must go through in order to function and survive during and after a natural disaster. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | South Marion Avenue and National Development and Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of addiction research & therapy | Year: 2016

Household space allocation by women who consume drugs in New York and North Florida is depicted to demonstrate the complex character of household space and social relations. Some parents attempt to hide their drug consumption through the allocation space in the household for drug use. Women allocation of space for drug use within their households and the impact of this on the household are relevant issues with implications for therapy and prevention.The use of household space has not been a focus of social scientists. Middle class households have been used by decoration literature to specify space utilization. Modest literature pay attention to the utilization of household space among drug focused households. Analysis herein looks at the lived social relations of drug users to their children through controlling household space.Data presented comes from two studies, New York and Florida. The studies involved a total of 158 participants in 72 families from New York and 26 participants in 23 families in North Florida. Both researches used an ethnographic methodology focusing on a variety of behavior patterns and conduct norms occurring within drug abusing households. Repeated interviews and observations took place in households which were visited at different times and days of the week. Florida study was conducted over a 2-year period; New York study took place over a 5-year period.Data suggest parents attempted to conceal their drug use from their offspring by using various strategies. Mental, social, and physical were tied together in space allocation. Household space acquired a different meaning and arose from use practice.In urban and rural settings a pattern of household allocation space and drug consumption is emerging. Although drug consumption is still prominent, it is not all consuming or the primary focus in the lives of women who use drugs. These women may have learned to integrate their consumption into their daily household/family life through the reallocation of space in their homes.


PubMed | National Development and Research Institute and University of Vermont
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of family psychology : JFP : journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43) | Year: 2014

Cohabitation is a family structure experienced by many Black children. This study examines the link between family relationships (child relationship with mother and the cohabiting partner; parent and cohabiting partner relationship) and involvement of biologically unrelated male cohabiting partners (MCP) in child rearing. The participants were 121 low-income urban Black families consisting of a single mother, MCP, and an adolescent (56% female, M age = 13.7). Assessments were conducted individually with mothers, MCPs, and adolescents via measures administered by interview. MCPs were involved in both domains of child rearing assessed (daily child-related tasks and setting limits) and those identified as coparents by the mother were more involved in child-rearing tasks than those not identified as coparents. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), the mother-MCP relationship (both support and conflict) and the adolescent-MCP relationship were related to MCPs involvement in both domains of child rearing. The findings indicate that MCPs are actively involved in child rearing and family relationship variables are associated with their involvement in these tasks.


PubMed | National Development and Research Institute and University of Vermont
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of child and family studies | Year: 2015

Male cohabiting partners in low-income urban Black single mother families may represent an extreme case of stepfathers who have been characterized as polite strangers in the household. The purpose of this study was twofold: To examine who serves as a coparent in these families; and to determine if identification of a coparent in addition to or instead of the MCP would be associated with the level of MCP involvement in the family. Participants were 121 mothers and adolescents from cohabiting families. The MCP was identified as a coparent in 75% of the families, an additional coparent was identified in only 30% of the families, and, when the MCP did not serve as a coparent, another individual was identified in this role in only 24% of the families. The identification of an MCP as a coparent was associated with higher levels of MCP childrearing activities, coparenting support provided by the MCP, and relationship quality with the mother relative to no coparent being identified. The identification of another coparent in addition to the MCP was not associated with changes in the higher levels of family involvement found when the MCP was a coparent. The importance of a male cohabiting partner for coparenting of an adolescent is emphasized in the discussion of the findings.


PubMed | National Development and Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The International journal on drug policy | Year: 2012

In recent years, numerous weather disasters have crippled many cities and towns across the United States of America. Such disasters present a unique opportunity for analyses of the disintegration and reformulation of drug markets. Disasters present new facts which cannot be explained by existing theories. Recent and continuing disasters present a radically different picture from that of police crack downs where market disruptions are carried out on a limited basis (both use and sales). Generally, users and sellers move to other locations and business continues as usual.The Katrina Disaster in 2005 offered a larger opportunity to understand the functioning and processes by which drug markets may or may not survive. Utilizing a variety of qualitative data including ethnographic field notes, in-depth interview transcripts, and focus group transcripts, we investigate the operation of the New Orleans drug market before, during, and after Hurricane Katrina.Our data clearly indicate that drug markets go through a series of stages in the wake of disaster in which they disintegrate and then reconstitute themselves. In the case of New Orleans, the post-Katrina drug market was radically different from the pre-Katrina drug market.Ultimately this manuscript presents a paradigm which uses stages as a testable concept to scientifically examine the disintegration and reformulation of drug markets during disaster or crisis situations. It describes the specific processes - referred to as stages - which drug markets must go through in order to function and survive during and after a natural disaster.

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