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Brooks A.C.,Treatment Research Institute | DiGuiseppi G.,Treatment Research Institute | Laudet A.,National Development and Research Institute | Rosenwasser B.,Philadelphia FIGHT | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment | Year: 2012

Training community-based addiction counselors in empirically supported treatments (ESTs) far exceeds the ever-decreasing resources of publicly funded treatment agencies. This feasibility study describes the development and pilot testing of a group counseling toolkit (an approach adapted from the education field) focused on relapse prevention (RP). When counselors (N = 17) used the RP toolkit after 3 hours of training, their content adherence scores on "coping with craving" and "drug refusal skills" showed significant improvement, as indicated by very large effect sizes (Cohen's d = 1.49 and 1.34, respectively). Counselor skillfulness, in the "adequate-to-average" range at baseline, did not change. Although this feasibility study indicates some benefit to counselor EST acquisition, it is important to note that the impact of the curriculum on client outcomes is unknown. Because a majority of addiction treatment is delivered in group format, a multimedia curriculum approach may assist counselors in applying ESTs in the context of actual service delivery. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Morton C.M.,National Development and Research Institute | Simmel C.,Rutgers University | Peterson N.A.,Rutgers University
Child Abuse and Neglect | Year: 2014

This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Drumright L.N.,University of California at San Diego | Drumright L.N.,Imperial College London | Hagan H.,National Development and Research Institute | Thomas D.L.,Johns Hopkins University | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Hepatology | Year: 2011

Background & Aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening can provide opportunities to reduce disease progression through counseling against alcohol use, but empirical data on this issue are sparse. We determined the efficacy of a behavioral intervention in reducing alcohol use among young, HCV-infected injection drug users (IDUs) (n = 355) and assessed whether changes in liver enzymes were associated with changes in alcohol consumption. Methods: Both the intervention and attention-control groups were counseled to avoid alcohol use, but the intervention group received enhanced counseling. Logistic regression, ANOVA, and continuous time Markov models were used to identify factors associated with alcohol use, changes in mean ALT and AST levels, and change in alcohol use post-intervention. Results: Six months post-intervention, alcohol abstinence increased 22.7% in both groups, with no difference by intervention arm. Transition from alcohol use to abstinence was associated with a decrease in liver enzymes, with a marginally greater decrease in the intervention group (p = 0.05 for ALT; p = 0.06 for AST). In multivariate Markov models, those who used marijuana transitioned from alcohol abstinence to consumption more rapidly than non-users (RR = 3.11); those who were homeless transitioned more slowly to alcohol abstinence (RR = 0.47); and those who had ever received a clinical diagnosis of liver disease transitioned more rapidly to abstinence (RR = 1.88). Conclusions: Although, behavioral counseling to reduce alcohol consumption among HCV-infected IDUs had a modest effect, reductions in alcohol consumption were associated with marked improvements in liver function. Interventions to reduce alcohol use among HCV-infected IDUs may benefit from being integrated into clinical care and monitoring of HCV infection. © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Windsor L.,Rutgers University | Pinto R.M.,Columbia University | Benoit E.,National Development and Research Institute | Jessell L.,Rutgers University | Jemal A.,Rutgers University
Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions | Year: 2014

Communities with histories of oppression have shown great resilience, yet few health interventions focus on structural oppression as a contributor to health problems in these communities. This article describes the development and active ingredients of Community Wise, a unique behavioral health intervention designed to reduce substance use frequency, related health risk behaviors, and recidivism among individuals with a history of incarceration and substance abuse residing in distressed and predominantly African American communities. Community Wise, developed through the collaborative efforts of a board of service providers, researchers, consumers, and government officials, is a 12-week group intervention that aims to address behavioral health problems by raising critical consciousness in distressed communities. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Dunlap E.,National Development and Research Institute | Graves J.,Houston Community College | Benoit E.,National Development and Research Institute
International Journal of Drug Policy | Year: 2012

Background: In recent years, numerous weather disasters have crippled many cities and towns across the United States of America. Such disasters present a unique opportunity for analyses of the disintegration and reformulation of drug markets. Disasters present new facts which cannot be "explained" by existing theories. Recent and continuing disasters present a radically different picture from that of police crack downs where market disruptions are carried out on a limited basis (both use and sales). Generally, users and sellers move to other locations and business continues as usual. Methods: The Katrina Disaster in 2005 offered a larger opportunity to understand the functioning and processes by which drug markets may or may not survive. Utilizing a variety of qualitative data including ethnographic field notes, in-depth interview transcripts, and focus group transcripts, we investigate the operation of the New Orleans drug market before, during, and after Hurricane Katrina. Results: Our data clearly indicate that drug markets go through a series of stages in the wake of disaster in which they disintegrate and then reconstitute themselves. In the case of New Orleans, the post-Katrina drug market was radically different from the pre-Katrina drug market. Conclusion: Ultimately this manuscript presents a paradigm which uses stages as a testable concept to scientifically examine the disintegration and reformulation of drug markets during disaster or crisis situations. It describes the specific processes - referred to as stages - which drug markets must go through in order to function and survive during and after a natural disaster. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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