National Rehabilitation Institute INR

Mexico City, Mexico

National Rehabilitation Institute INR

Mexico City, Mexico

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Magana J.J.,National Rehabilitation Institute INR | Tapia-Guerrero Y.S.,National Rehabilitation Institute INR | Tapia-Guerrero Y.S.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Velazquez-Perez L.,Center for Research and Rehabilitation of the Hereditary Ataxias | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Genetics | Year: 2014

Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. CAG (cytosine-adenine-guanine) trinucleotide repeat expansions in the causative genes have been identified as the cause of different SCA. In this study, we simultaneously genotyped SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6, and SCA7 applying a fluorescent multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. We analyzed 10 families with SCA (64 patients) from five different communities of Veracruz, a Mexican southeastern state, and identified 55 patients for SCA7 and 9 for SCA2, but none for SCA1, SCA3, or SCA6. To our knowledge, this sample represents one of the largest series of SCA7 cases reported worldwide. Genotyping of 300 healthy individuals from Mexican population and compiled data from different ethnicities showed discordant results concerning the hypothesis that SCA disease alleles arise by expansion of large normal alleles. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Velazquez-Perez L.,National Rehabilitation Institute INR | Velazquez-Perez L.,CINVESTAV | Velazquez-Perez L.,Center for Research and Rehabilitation of the Hereditary Ataxias | Cerecedo-Zapata C.M.,National Rehabilitation Institute INR | And 7 more authors.
Neurogenetics | Year: 2014

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia associated with macular degeneration. We recently described one of the largest series of patients with SCA7 that originated from a founder effect in a Mexican population, which allowed us to perform herein the first comprehensive clinical, neurophysiological, and genetic characterization of Mexican patients with SCA7. In this study, 50 patients, categorized into adult or early phenotype, were clinically assessed using standard neurological exams and genotyped using fluorescent PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Patients with SCA7 exhibited the classical phenotype of the disease characterized by cerebellar ataxia and visual loss; however, we reported, for the first time, frontal-executive disorders and altered sensory-motor peripheral neuropathy in these patients. Semiquantitative analysis of ataxia-associated symptoms was performed using Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and the Brief Ataxia Rating Scale (BARS) scores, while extracerebellar features were measured employing the Inventory of Non-ataxia Symptoms (INAS) scale. Ataxia rating scales confirmed the critical role size of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat size on age at onset and disease severity, while analysis of CAG repeat instability showed that paternal rather than maternal transmission led to greater instability. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Velazquez-Perez L.,Center for the Research and Rehabilitation of the Hereditary Ataxias | Gonzalez-Pina R.,National Rehabilitation Institute INR | Rodriguez-Labrada R.,Center for the Research and Rehabilitation of the Hereditary Ataxias | Aguilera-Rodriguez R.,Center for the Research and Rehabilitation of the Hereditary Ataxias | And 8 more authors.
Cerebellum | Year: 2014

Hereditary ataxias are a heterogeneous group of neurological diseases characterized by progressive cerebellar syndrome and numerous other features, which result in great diversity of ataxia subtypes. Despite the characterization of a number of both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive ataxias, it is thought that a large group of these conditions remains to be identified. In this study, we report the characterization of five patients (three Mexicans and two Italians) who exhibit a peculiar form of recessive ataxia associated with coughing. The main clinical and neurophysiological features of these patients include cerebellar ataxia, paroxysmal cough, restless legs syndrome (RLS), choreic movements, atrophy of distal muscles, and oculomotor disorders. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed cerebellar atrophy, while video polysomnography (VPSG) studies showed a severe pattern of breathing-related sleep disorder, including sleep apnea, snoring, and significant oxygen saturation in the absence of risk factors. All patients share clinical features in the peripheral nervous system, including reduction of amplitude and prolonged latency of sensory potentials in median and sural nerves. Altogether, clinical criteria as well as molecular genetic testing that was negative for different autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive ataxias suggest the presence of a new form of recessive ataxia. This ataxia, in which cerebellar signs are preceded by paroxysmal cough, affects not only the cerebellum and its fiber connections, but also the sensory peripheral nervous system and extracerebellar central pathways. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media.


Velazquez-Perez L.,Center for the Research and Rehabilitation of Hereditary Ataxias | Rodriguez-Labrada R.,Center for the Research and Rehabilitation of Hereditary Ataxias | Cruz-Rivas E.M.,Clinical Surgical Hospital Lucia Iniguez | Fernandez-Ruiz J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 13 more authors.
Cerebellum | Year: 2014

The prodromal phase of spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) has not been systematically studied. Main findings come from a homogeneous SCA type 2 (SCA2) population living in Cuba. The aim of this study was to characterize extensively the prodromal phase of SCA2 by several approaches. Thirty-seven non-ataxic SCA2 mutation carriers and its age- and sex-matched controls underwent clinical assessments, including standardized neurological exam, structured interviews and clinical scales, and looking for somatic and autonomic features, as well as a neuropsychological battery, antisaccadic recordings, and MRI scans. Main clinical somatic features of non-ataxic mutation carriers were cramps, sensory symptoms, sleep disorders, and hyperreflexia, whereas predominating autonomic symptoms were pollakiuria/nocturia, constipation, and frequent throat clearing. Cognitive impairments included early deficits of executive functions and visual memory, suggesting the involvement of cerebro-cerebellar-cerebral loops and/or reduced cholinergic basal forebrain input to the cortex. Antisaccadic task revealed impaired oculomotor inhibitory control but preserved ability for error correction. Cognitive and antisaccadic deficits were higher as carriers were closer to the estimated onset of ataxia, whereas higher Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) scores were associated most notably to vermis atrophy. The recognition of early features of SCA2 offers novel insights into the prodromal phase and physiopathological base of the disease, allowing the assessment of its progression and the efficacy of treatments, in particular at early phases when therapeutical options should be most effective. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


PubMed | University of The Azores, Autonomous University of Barcelona, CINVESTAV, University of Porto and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN | Year: 2016

The polyglutamine spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) constitute a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of rare late-onset neurodegenerative disorders, caused by CAG expansions in the coding region of the respective genes. Given their considerable clinical overlapping, differential diagnosis relies on molecular testing. Laboratory best practice guidelines for molecular genetic testing of the SCAs were released in 2010 by the European Molecular Genetics Quality Network, following the recognition of gross genotyping errors by some diagnostic laboratories. The main goal of this study was to verify the existence of inter-laboratorial consistency comparing genotypes for SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6 and SCA7 obtained by independent diagnostic laboratories. The individual impact of different methodological issues on the genotype for the several SCAs was also analysed. Four international collaborative diagnostic laboratories provided 79 samples and the respective SCA genotypes. Samples were genotyped in-house for all SCAs using an independent methodology; comparison of the allele size obtained with the one provided by the collaborative laboratories was performed. Globally, no significant differences were identified, a result which could be reflecting the fulfilment of recommendations for the molecular testing of SCAs and demonstrating an improvement in genotyping accuracy.


Gomez-Coello A.,National Rehabilitation Institute INR | Valadez-Jimenez V.M.,National Rehabilitation Institute INR | Cisneros B.,CINVESTAV | Carrillo-Mora P.,INR | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Voice | Year: 2016

Background/Objectives: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a cytosine-adenine-guanine triplet located in the coding region of the ATXN7 gene, which is characterized by cerebellar ataxia, pigmentary macular degeneration, and dysarthria. Although dysarthria is a common feature in various SCA, its clinical characterization has been barely approached. Patients/Methods: In this study, we report, to our knowledge for the first time, a detailed voice analysis in a large series of patients with SCA7, using different vocal parameters, including jitter, shimmer, and fundamental frequency. Patients were molecularly diagnosed using fluorescent-based polymerase chain reaction and capillary electrophoresis, and clinically characterized using the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia and the Inventory of Non-Ataxia Symptoms. Results: We found altered jitter, shimmer, and fundamental frequency measurements in patients with SCA7 compared with control subjects (P < 0.05). However, voice impairment was found unrelated with both age at disease onset and size of the cytosine-adenine-guanine triplet tract. Remarkably, jitter and shimmer measurements of patients were found to correlate with their Inventory of Non-Ataxia Symptoms, but not with their Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia scores, implying that voice impairment is the result of extra-cerebellar manifestations of the disease. Conclusions: We propose that deficiency of the extra-cerebellar component of SCA7 might lead to sudden changes in laryngeal muscle tone, producing instability in sustained vowel phonation. Clinical characterization of voice will help to discriminate SCA7 from other SCA and to guide vocal therapy treatments. © 2016 The Voice Foundation.


PubMed | CINVESTAV, National Rehabilitation Institute INR, Laboratory of Genomic Medicine and INR
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation | Year: 2016

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a cytosine-adenine-guanine triplet located in the coding region of the ATXN7 gene, which is characterized by cerebellar ataxia, pigmentary macular degeneration, and dysarthria. Although dysarthria is a common feature in various SCA, its clinical characterization has been barely approached.In this study, we report, to our knowledge for the first time, a detailed voice analysis in a large series of patients with SCA7, using different vocal parameters, including jitter, shimmer, and fundamental frequency. Patients were molecularly diagnosed using fluorescent-based polymerase chain reaction and capillary electrophoresis, and clinically characterized using the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia and the Inventory of Non-Ataxia Symptoms.We found altered jitter, shimmer, and fundamental frequency measurements in patients with SCA7 compared with control subjects (P<0.05). However, voice impairment was found unrelated with both age at disease onset and size of the cytosine-adenine-guanine triplet tract. Remarkably, jitter and shimmer measurements of patients were found to correlate with their Inventory of Non-Ataxia Symptoms, but not with their Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia scores, implying that voice impairment is the result of extra-cerebellar manifestations of the disease.We propose that deficiency of the extra-cerebellar component of SCA7 might lead to sudden changes in laryngeal muscle tone, producing instability in sustained vowel phonation. Clinical characterization of voice will help to discriminate SCA7 from other SCA and to guide vocal therapy treatments.


PubMed | National Rehabilitation Institute INR
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neurogenetics | Year: 2015

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia associated with macular degeneration. We recently described one of the largest series of patients with SCA7 that originated from a founder effect in a Mexican population, which allowed us to perform herein the first comprehensive clinical, neurophysiological, and genetic characterization of Mexican patients with SCA7. In this study, 50 patients, categorized into adult or early phenotype, were clinically assessed using standard neurological exams and genotyped using fluorescent PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Patients with SCA7 exhibited the classical phenotype of the disease characterized by cerebellar ataxia and visual loss; however, we reported, for the first time, frontal-executive disorders and altered sensory-motor peripheral neuropathy in these patients. Semiquantitative analysis of ataxia-associated symptoms was performed using Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and the Brief Ataxia Rating Scale (BARS) scores, while extracerebellar features were measured employing the Inventory of Non-ataxia Symptoms (INAS) scale. Ataxia rating scales confirmed the critical role size of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat size on age at onset and disease severity, while analysis of CAG repeat instability showed that paternal rather than maternal transmission led to greater instability.


PubMed | National Rehabilitation Institute INR
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular neurobiology | Year: 2013

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by cerebellar dysfunction associated with slow saccades, early hyporeflexia, severe tremor of postural or action type, peripheral neuropathy, cognitive disorders, and other multisystemic features. SCA2, one of the most common ataxias worldwide, is caused by the expansion of a CAG triplet repeat located in the N-terminal coding region of the ATXN2 gene, which results in the incorporation of a segment of polyglutamines in the mutant protein, being longer expansions associated with earlier onset and more sever disease in subsequent generations. In this review, we offer a detailed description of the clinical manifestations of SCA2 and compile the experimental evidence showing the participation of ataxin-2 in crucial cellular processes, including messenger RNA maturation and translation, and endocytosis. In addition, we discuss in the light of present data the potential molecular mechanisms underlying SCA2 pathogenesis. The mutant protein exhibits a toxic gain of function that is mainly attributed to the generation of neuronal inclusions of phosphorylated and/or proteolytic cleaved mutant ataxin-2, which might alter normal ataxin-2 function, leading to cell dysfunction and death of target cells. In the final part of this review, we discuss the perspectives of development of therapeutic strategies for SCA2. Based on previous experience with other polyglutamine disorders and considering the molecular basis of SCA2 pathogenesis, a nuclei-acid-based strategy focused on the specific silencing of the dominant disease allele that preserves the expression of the wild-type allele is highly desirable and might prevent toxic neurodegenerative sequelae.


PubMed | National Rehabilitation Institute INR
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cerebellum (London, England) | Year: 2013

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia associated with macular degeneration that leads, in the majority of patients, to loss of autonomy and blindness. The cause of the disease has been identified as (CAG) n repeat expansion in the coding sequence of the ATXN7 gene on chromosome 3p21.1. SCA7 is one of the least common genetically verified autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias found worldwide; however, we previously identified the Mexican population showing high prevalence of SCA7, suggesting the occurrence of a common founder effect. In this study, haplotype analysis using four SCA7 gene-linked markers revealed that all 72 SCA7 carriers studied share a common haplotype, A-254-82-98, for the intragenic marker 3145G/A and centromeric markers D3S1287, D3S1228, and D3S3635, respectively. This multiloci combination is uncommon in healthy relatives and Mexican general population, suggesting that a single ancestral mutation is responsible for all SCA7 cases in this population. Furthermore, genotyping using 17 short tandem repeat markers from the non-recombining region of the Y chromosome and further phylogenetic relationship analysis revealed that Mexican patients possess the Western European ancestry, which might trace the SCA7 ancestral mutation to that world region.

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