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PubMed | Toneyama National Hospital and National Regional Center for Neurological Disorders and Utano National Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Although aspiration pneumonia is the most common complication of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), the clinical impact of aspiration pneumonia on disease course and survival has not been fully estimated. Thus, we retrospectively analyzed the prognostic factors and clinical consequences of pneumonia in PSP.The clinical course of patients with aspiration pneumonia was surveyed. The association between baseline clinical features (2 years from disease onset) and latency to the initial development of pneumonia was investigated using survival time and Cox regression analyses.Ninety patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSP were observed for 5.13.8 years (meanSD), and 22 had aspiration pneumonia. Subsequently, 20 patients (91%) had to discontinue oral feeding entirely and 13 (59%) died, whereas, of 68 patients without pneumonia, only three patients (4%) died. Time to initial development of pneumonia was strongly correlated with survival time (Spearman R = 0.92, P<0.001), with a mean latency of 2.3 years to death. Among baseline clinical features, early fall episodes and cognitive decline were significant predictors of pneumonia (P = 0.001 and P<0.001, respectively, log rank test). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that early fall episodes (adjusted hazard ratio: 3.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.2-12.5, P = 0.03) and cognitive decline (adjusted hazard ratio: 5.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.4-19.3, P = 0.02) independently predicted pneumonia. By contrast, dysphagia was not associated with pneumonia (P = 0.2, log rank test).Initial development of pneumonia indicates an unfavorable clinical course and predicts survival time (mean survival time 2.3 years). Patients with early falls and cognitive decline were at high risk of early development of pneumonia.

Sawada H.,Clinical Research Center | Sawada H.,National Regional Center for Neurological Disorders and Utano National Hospital | Oeda T.,Clinical Research Center | Oeda T.,National Regional Center for Neurological Disorders and Utano National Hospital | And 11 more authors.
BMC Neurology | Year: 2013

Background: Psychoses such as hallucinations are a frequent non-motor problem in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and serious psychosis requires anti-psychotic medications that worsen Parkinsonism. Although psychosis could be associated with patient-related or biological factors such as cognition, age, and severity of PD, it can also be associated with medications.Therefore we aimed to investigate patient-related and medication-related risks of psychosis requiring anti-psychotic medications (serious psychosis).Methods: A retrospective cohort of 331 PD patients was followed for 2 years. Patient-related factors associated with risk of psychosis were identified by a survival time analysis. In patients who developed psychosis, medications during the hazard period (1-14 days before psychosis) were contrasted with those during the control periods (1 and 3 months before psychosis) using a case-crossover analysis to identify medication-related risks of psychosis.Results: Serious psychosis was detected in 52 patients and the incidence was estimated to be 116 (95% confidence interval [CI], 85-148) per 1,000 person-years. Analyses of baseline characteristics revealed the risk to be higher in patients with a modified Hoehn-Yahr stage of ≥4 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.22; 95% CI, 1.11-4.40), those with a longer duration of PD (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.00-1.55, per 5 years) and those with Mini-Mental State Examination scores of ≤24 (HR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.37-5.16). The case-crossover analysis revealed that anti-cholinergics use (HR, 19.7; 95% CI, 2.39-162) elevated the risk, while donepezil use reduced it (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.27-0.85).Conclusions: Risk of psychosis was elevated by increasing severity of PD, cognitive dysfunction and duration of the disease. It was elevated by use of anti-cholinergic drugs and reduced by use of donepezil. The medication-related risk was higher in patients aged ≥ 70 years. In contrast, there was no significant medication-related risk in younger patients, suggesting different pathomechanisms between young and old patients. © 2013 Sawada et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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