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Kumar B.,National Reference Trace Organics Laboratory | Mukherjee D.P.,National Reference Trace Organics Laboratory
International Journal of Vegetable Science | Year: 2012

Vegetables are important components of the human diet, and even low levels of pesticides in vegetables may have adverse effects for consumers. A study was carried out to assess residue levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachloro-cyclohexane (HCH), and endosulfan in vegetables. The total concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) ranged from 0.29 to 106.65 μg.kg -1 (wet weight). All vegetable samples had some levels of one or more organochlorine pesticide in them. Mean concentrations of σDDT, σHCH, and σendosulfan in vegetables were 4.20 ± 1.68, 3.12 ± 0.66, and 0.97 ± 0.21 μg.kg -1 (wet weight), respectively. The greatest OCP accumulation was in root vegetables, followed by fruit and flower and leaf vegetables. The ratio of α-HCH to γ-HCH isomers (α/γ HCH ratio) ranged from 0.03 to 3.77, which reflects the use of lindane as well as technical formulations of HCH. The ratio of (DDE + DDD)/σDDT, and DDT/DDE were 0.55 and 1.30, respectively, indicating biotransformation and input of DDT to the environment. Vegetables had residue levels of OCPs much below recommended maximum residue limits set by the European Commission and Indian government, indicating minimal risk to the consumers. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Kumar B.,National Reference Trace Organics Laboratory | Kumar S.,National Reference Trace Organics Laboratory | Mukherjee D.P.,Central Pollution Control Board | Sharma C.S.,National Reference Trace Organics Laboratory
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment | Year: 2012

Particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans (PCDDs/Fs) were analyzed in the coastal air of West Bengal, India. Total PCDD/Fs ranged from 4-2491 fg m-3 with a mean of 355 fg m-3 and their I-TEQ values ranged between 1 to 62.6 fg I-TEQ m-3, with an average of 17.1 fg I-TEQ m-3. The dominant congeners were OCDD (46%) OCDF (14%) 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF (11%) and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD (10%) and accounted for >80% to the total PCDDs/Fs. TCDD (29%) > PeCDF (28%) > HxCDF (16%) > PeCDD (13%) were the dominant TEQ contributors. Rough estimates of tolerable daily intake (TDI) show a low health risk of exposure to PCDD/Fs measured in the ambient air of a rural coastal area of West Bengal, India. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Kaur S.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Senthilkumar K.,Savannah State University | Verma V.K.,National Reference Trace Organics Laboratory | Kumar B.,National Reference Trace Organics Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2013

Preliminary analysis was performed to assess human health risks of exposure to 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by way of inhalation by children and adults living in urban area of Amritsar, Punjab, India. In particular, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) 16 priority PAH compounds were analyzed in air particulate matter (PM10) from different geographical locations by high-volume air sampler. Sum concentrations of PAHs (37-274 ng m-3) were comparable with those of other cities in India as well many cities on a global scale. Pyrene, naphthalene, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, fluoranthene, fluorene, and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene accounted for >80 % of Σ16PAH concentrations. Furthermore, the contribution of seven carcinogenic PAHs accounted for 12 % of Σ16PAHs. The estimated carcinogenicityof PAHs in terms of benzo(a)pyrene toxic equivalency (BaPTEQ) was assessed and confirmed that dibenzo(a,h)anthracene was the dominant PAH contributor 88.7 %) followed by benzo(a)pyrene (6.67 %). Homolog pattern and diagnostic ratios of PAHs suggested that mixed pyrogenic sources-including biomass burning, coal combustion, and petrogenic sources, such as vehicular emissions-are dominant PAH sources in Amritsar. Health risk of adults and children by way of PAHs was assessed by estimating the lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and corresponding incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) using USEPA guidelines. The assessed cancer risk (ILCR) was found to be within the acceptable range (10-6-10-4). © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013. Source


Kumar B.,National Reference Trace Organics Laboratory | Kumar S.,National Reference Trace Organics Laboratory | Sharma C.S.,National Reference Trace Organics Laboratory
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment | Year: 2013

The River Yamuna originates from the Yamunotri glacier of the Himalayas and travels 22 km in the Delhi region. The river is used for various purposes in Delhi including drinking water supply. Twenty-eight polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners were measured in bank sediments along the river, and their ecotoxicological risk was evaluated. Concentrations of ∑28PCBs varied from 0.20-21.16 ng g-1 (dry wt.) with mean and median values of 6.63 ng g-1 and 5.84 ng g-1 (±0.69 ng g-1), respectively. The concentration of 12 dl-PCBs concentrations varied from 0.04-2.86 ng g-1 with a mean of 1.04 ± 0.11 ng g-1, and their toxic equivalency ranged between <0.01-28.67 pg WHO-TEQ g-1 with a mean of 10.77 ± 1.06 pg WHO-TEQ g-1. CB-37, CB-44, CB-114, and CB-118 congeners were dominant among all PCBs congeners. The tri-PCBs (49%) were the main contributors to the PCB homolog followed by tetra-PCBs (35%), and penta-PCB (14%). Because there are no environmental guidelines in India for PCBs in river and marine sediments, concentrations of PCBs and their toxic equivalents were compared in a screening-level assessment with established freshwater sediment quality guidelines and found lower than those guideline values, which suggests no adverse ecotoxicological effect. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Kumar B.,National Reference Trace Organics Laboratory | Gaur R.,National Reference Trace Organics Laboratory | Kumar S.,National Reference Trace Organics Laboratory | Sharma C.S.,National Reference Trace Organics Laboratory
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment | Year: 2013

Exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) for health risk was studied in soils from the Delhi region, India. The mean and median concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene were 0.031 and 0.029 (±0.002) mg/kg, respectively. The lifetime average daily dose (LADD) for adults and children was 1.7 × 10-8 mg kg-1 d-1 and 7.5 × 10-8 mg kg-1 d-1, respectively, with incremental life time cancer risk (ILCR) of 1.2 × 10-7 and 5.5 × 10-7, respectively. The Index of Additive Cancer Risk (IACR) was 0.084. Our screening-level risk assessment shows that the observed ILCR and IACR values are much lower than the guideline values of 10-6 - 10-4 (ILCR) and <1 (IACR), respectively, and therefore the measured B(a)P levels in soil may not portend environmental and human health risks. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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