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Di Leo A.,CNR Institute for Coastal Marine Environment | Annicchiarico C.,CNR Institute for Coastal Marine Environment | Cardellicchio N.,CNR Institute for Coastal Marine Environment | Giandomenico S.,CNR Institute for Coastal Marine Environment | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research

The levels and specific profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Mar Grande and the Mar Piccolo of Taranto were determined during the extensive monitoring plan of Local Health Authority to assess PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs contamination in food and farm products, within 20 km from the industrial areas of Taranto, between March and December 2011. The average Total Toxicity Equivalence (TEQ) values for the sum of PCDD/F and DL-PCBs ranged from 1.61 to 5.63 pg WHO2005-TEQ g−1 wet weight basis, with the highest in the first inlet of the Mar Piccolo. In particular, DL-PCBs were the dominant chemicals in all samples, followed by PCDFs and PCDDs. Congener patterns in mussels were similar, indicating a homogeneous behavior in studied areas and, probably, the same type of source. The seasonal concentrations trend showed a relevant increase of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs TEQs during the summer months, exceeding the limits set by the European Community for food and foodstuff. Reducing PCDD/Fs and PCBs is necessary to decrease contamination levels in order to safeguard marine ecosystem and human health in the Taranto area. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Rivezzi G.,St. Anna and St. Sebastiano Hospital | Piscitelli P.,ISDE Campania | Piscitelli P.,Euro Mediterranean Bio Medical Scientific Institute | Scortichini G.,National Reference Laboratory for Dioxins and PCBs in Food and Feed | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

Background: The Caserta and Naples areas in Campania Region experience heavy environmental contamination due to illegal waste disposal and burns, thus representing a valuable setting to develop a general model of human contamination with dioxins (PCDDs-PCDFs) and dioxin-like-PCBs (dl-PCBs). Methods: 94 breastfeeding women (aged 19-32 years; mean age 27.9 ± 3.0) were recruited to determine concentrations of PCDDs-PCDFs and dl-PCBs in their milk. Individual milk samples were collected and analyzed according to standard international procedures. A generalized linear model was used to test potential predictors of pollutant concentration in breast milk: age, exposure to waste fires, cigarette smoking, diet, and residence in high/low risk area (defined at high/low environmental pressure by a specific 2007 WHO report). A Structural Equation Model (SEM) analysis was carried out by taking into account PCDDs-PCDFs and dl-PCBs as endogenous variables and age, waste fires, risk area and smoking as exogenous variables. Results: All milk samples were contaminated by PCDDs-PCDFs (8.6 pg WHO-TEQ/98g fat ± 2.7; range 3.8-19) and dl-PCBs (8.0 pg WHO-TEQ/98g fat ± 3.7; range 2.5-24), with their concentrations being associated with age and exposure to waste fires (p < 0.01). Exposure to fires resulted in larger increases of dioxins concentrations in people living in low risk areas than those from high risk areas (p < 0.01). Conclusions: A diffuse human exposure to persistent organic pollutants was observed in the Caserta and Naples areas. Dioxins concentration in women living in areas classified at low environmental pressure in 2007 WHO report was significantly influenced by exposure to burns. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Martellini T.,University of Florence | Diletti G.,National Reference Laboratory for Dioxins and PCBs in Food and Feed | Scortichini G.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Umbria e Marche | Lolini M.,Regional Agency for the Environmental Protection of Region Tuscany ARPAT | And 3 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in various foodstuffs in Italy and the dietary intake was estimated. PBDEs were detected in all analysed samples at concentrations that spanned over five orders of magnitude. The most abundant congeners were the BDE-209, followed by BDE-47 and BDE-99. Fish oil and milk samples showed the highest PBDE concentrations among all samples. The daily dietary intake values were found to be in good agreement or higher to literature values, impacted mainly from the contribution of the analysed dairy products. The cancer risk values estimated for BDE-209 indicated that this specific risk associated with the studied foodstuffs is limited.Italy is one of the world-leading countries in the production of furniture and clothes and has extremely developed medium enterprise industrial sector, where PBDEs were historically used suggesting that their occurrence may be linked to these activities. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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