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Beato M.S.,National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease | Xu Y.,Mississippi State University | Long L.-P.,Mississippi State University | Capua I.,National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease | Wan X.-F.,Mississippi State University
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2014

Outbreaks of low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses of the H7N3 subtype were first detected in Italy in October 2002, and the virus continued to circulate between 2002 and 2004 in a densely populated poultry area in the northeast portion of that country. This virus circulated in unvaccinated and vaccinated poultry farms, and the infection was controlled in August 2003 by culling, control of movements, improved biosecurity, and heterologous vaccination. In 2004, H7N3 reoccurred in vaccinated poultry farms in which infection had been successfully controlled by the vaccination program. To shed light on this occurrence and the temporal pattern and genetic basis of antigenic drift for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in the absence and presence of heterologous vaccination, a collection of H7N3 viruses isolated in 2002 and 2004 were characterized genetically and antigenically. Molecular analysis showed that viruses isolated in the 2004 outbreaks after the implementation of vaccination had acquired specific amino acid signatures, most of which were located at reported antibody binding sites of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Antigenic characterization of these 2004 isolates showed that they were antigenically different from those isolated prior to the implementation of vaccination. This is the first report on antigenic and genetic evolution of H7 LPAI viruses following the application of heterologous vaccination in poultry. These findings may have an impact on control strategies to combat AI infections in poultry based on vaccination. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Goletic T.,National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease | Gagic A.,National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease | Residbegovic E.,National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease | Kustura A.,National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease | And 5 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2010

In order to determine the actual prevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds in Bosnia and Herzegovina, extensive surveillance was carried out between October 2005 and April 2006. A total of 394 samples representing 41 bird species were examined for the presence of influenza A virus using virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs, PCR, and nucleotide sequencing. AIV subtype H5N1 was detected in two mute swans (Cygnus olor). The isolates were determined to be highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus and the hemagglutinin sequence was closely similar to A/Cygnus olor/Astrakhan/Ast05-2-10/2005 (H5N1). This is the first report of HPAI subtype H5N1 in Bosnia and Herzegovina. © 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists. Source


Kongkamnerd J.,Chulalongkorn University | Milani A.,National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease | Cattoli G.,National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease | Terregino C.,National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biomolecular Screening | Year: 2011

Many assays aimed to test the inhibitory effects of synthetic molecules, and naturally occurring products on the neuraminidase activity exploit the hydrolysis of 2′-O-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-N-acetylneuraminic acid (4-MUNANA). The amount of the released product, 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), is then measured fluorimetrically. The authors attempted an analysis of the inhibitory properties of 35 naturally occurring flavonoids on neuraminidase N3, where only 29 of them were sufficiently soluble in the assay medium. During the analysis, the authors noticed a strong quenching effect due to the test compounds on the fluorescence of 4-MU. The quenching constants for the flavonoids were determined according to the Stern-Volmer approach. The extent of fluorescence reduction due to quenching and the magnitude of the fluorescence reduction measured in the inhibition assays were comparable: for 11 of 29 compounds, the two values were found to be coincident within the experimental uncertainty. These data were statistically analyzed for correlation by calculating the pertinent Pearson correlation coefficient. Inhibition and quenching were found to be positively correlated (r = 0.71, p(uncorr) = 1.5 × 10-5), and the correlation was maintained for the whole set of tested compounds. Altogether, the collected data imply that all of the tested flavonoids could produce false-positive results in the neuraminidase inhibition assay using 4-MUNANA as a substrate. © 2011 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening. Source

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