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Franco A.,National Reference Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance | Leekitcharoenphon P.,Technical University of Denmark | Feltrin F.,National Reference Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance | Alba P.,National Reference Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

We report the spread of a clone of multidrug-resistant (MDR), ESBL-producing (blaCTX-M-1) Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis, in the Italian broiler chicken industry and along the food-chain. This was first detected in Italy in 2011 and led to human infection in Italy in 2013-2014.A set (n = 49) of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant (R) isolates of S. Infantis (2011-2014) from humans, food-producing animals and meat thereof, were studied along with a selected set of earlier and more recent ESC-susceptible (ESC-S) isolates (n = 42, 2001-2014). They were characterized by macrorestriction-PFGE analysis and genetic environment of ESC-resistance. Isolates representative of PFGE-patterns and origin were submitted to Whole Genome Sequencing. The emerging ESC-R clone, detected mainly from broiler chickens, broiler meat and humans, showed a minimum pattern of clinical resistance to cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim, beside ciprofloxacin microbiological resistance (MIC 0.25 mg/L). All isolates of this clone harbored a conjugative megaplasmid (~ 280-320 Kb), similar to that described in ESC-susceptible S. Infantis in Israel (pESI-like) in 2014. This megaplasmid carried the ESBL gene blaCTX-M-1, and additional genes [tet(A), sul1, dfrA1 and dfrA14] mediating cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and trimethoprim resistance. It also contained genes conferring enhanced colonization capability, virulence (fimbriae, yersiniabactin), resistance and fitness (qacE1, mer) in the intensive-farming environment. This emerging clone of S. Infantis has been causing infections in humans, most likely through the broiler industry. Since S. Infantis is among major serovars causing human infections in Europe and is an emerging non-typhoidal Salmonella globally, further spread of this lineage in primary productions deserves quick and thorough risk-management strategies. © 2015 Franco et al. 2015 Franco et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Carfora V.,National Reference Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance | Giacinti G.,Centro Of Referenza Nazionale Per La Qualita Del Latte E Dei Prodotti Derivati Degli Ovini E Dei Caprini | Sagrafoli D.,Centro Of Referenza Nazionale Per La Qualita Del Latte E Dei Prodotti Derivati Degli Ovini E Dei Caprini | Marri N.,Centro Of Referenza Nazionale Per La Qualita Del Latte E Dei Prodotti Derivati Degli Ovini E Dei Caprini | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

Staphylococcus aureus is involved in a wide variety of diseases in humans and animals, and it is considered one of the most significant etiological agents of intramammary infection in dairy ruminants, causing both clinical and subclinical infections. In this study, the intra-farm prevalence and circulation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) were investigated on an Italian dairy sheep farm previously identified as MRSA-positive by testing bulk tank milk (first isolation in 2012). Human samples (nasal swabs, hand skin samples, and oropharyngeal swabs) from 3 persons working in close contact with the animals were also collected, and the genetic characteristics and relatedness of the MRSA isolates from human and animal sources within the farm were investigated. After 2 yr from the first isolation, we confirmed the presence of the same multidrug-resistant strain of MRSA sequence type (ST)1, clonal complex (CC)1, spa type t127, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC. mec) type IVa, showing identical pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and resistance profiles at the farm level in bulk tank milk. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were detected in 2 out of 556 (0.34%) individual milk samples, whereas MSSA isolates were detected in 10 samples (1.8%). The MRSA were further isolated from udder skin samples from the 2 animals that were MRSA-positive in milk and in 2 of the 3 examined farm personnel. All MRSA isolates from both ovine and human samples belonged to ST(CC)1, spa type t127, SCC. mec type IVa, with some isolates from animals harboring genes considered markers of human adaptation. In contrast, all MSSA isolates belonged to ruminant-associated CC130, ST700, spa type t528. Analysis by PFGE performed on selected MRSA isolates of human and animal origin identified 2 closely related (96.3% similarity) pulsotypes, displaying only minimal differences in gene profiles (e.g., presence of the immune evasion cluster genes). Although we observed low MRSA intra-farm prevalence, our findings highlight the importance of considering the possible zoonotic potential of CC1 livestock-associated MRSA, in view of the ability to persist over years at the farm level. Biosecurity measures and good hygiene practices could be useful to prevent MRSA spread at the farm level and to minimize exposure in the community and in categories related to farm animal industry (e.g., veterinarians, farmers, and farm workers). © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Source

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