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Wallach D.,Hopital Tarnier Cochin | Taieb A.,National Reference Center for Rare Skin Disorders
Chemical Immunology and Allergy | Year: 2014

Atopic dermatitis was described in 1933 but exists since antiquity. We review descriptions of a childhood skin disease compatible with our modern diagnosis of atopic dermatitis, in ancient medicine and in nineteenth century dermatology texts. We identify Hebra's prurigo and Besnier's diathetic prurigo as forerunners of atopic dermatitis, the latter being a synthesis of infantile eczema and prurigo. The pathogenic theories which link atopic dermatitis to humoralistic medicine, to digestive diseases, to allergy may have had consequences on today's reluctance to consider atopic dermatitis as a skin disorder, the treatment of which relies mainly on topicals. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Darlenski R.,Medical Faculty | Taieb A.,National Reference Center for Rare Skin Disorders | Hachem J.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Baudouin C.,Laboratoires Expanscience | And 3 more authors.
Experimental Dermatology | Year: 2010

Please cite this paper as: Functional skin adaptation in infancy - almost complete but not fully competent. Experimental Dermatology 2010; 19: 483-492. Abstract: Early postnatal life is a period of active functional reorganization and cutaneous physiological adaptation to the extrauterine environment. Skin as the outermost organ of mammalians is endowed of multiple functions such as protection, secretion, absorption and thermoregulation. Birth stimulates the epidermal barrier maturation and the skin surface acidification especially in premature infants. In full-term infants the developed stratum corneum accomplishes competent barrier function, in contrast to prematures. Complete barrier maturation in preterm infants is fulfilled by 2-4 weeks of the postnatal life. However, in preterms with 23-25 weeks gestational age this process takes longer. Versatile regulatory mechanisms, namely skin surface acidity, calcium ion gradient and nuclear hormone receptors/ligands are interrelated in the complex postnatal newborn adaptation. The skin of newborns is adjusting quickly to the challenging environmental conditions of the postpartum. However, certain functions, for example, microcirculation, continue to develop even beyond the neonatal period, that is, up to the age of 14-17 weeks. Different environmental factors (for instance, dry and cold climate, diapers and cosmetic care procedures) influence the postnatal development of skin functional parameters such as stratum corneum hydration and the permeability barrier especially in premature infants. The aim of this article is to summarize the current knowledge on skin physiology in newborn and infants with a practical approach and to discuss the possible clinical consequences. This review offers the readership a critical and practical overview of skin physiology in newborns and infants. It emphasizes possible new research fields in neonatal and infantile skin physiology. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source


Wagner R.Y.,Institute Curie | Wagner R.Y.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Wagner R.Y.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Wagner R.Y.,Equipe Labellisee | And 30 more authors.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2015

Vitiligo is the most common depigmenting disorder resulting from the loss of melanocytes from the basal epidermal layer. The pathogenesis of the disease is likely multifactorial and involves autoimmune causes, as well as oxidative and mechanical stress. It is important to identify early events in vitiligo to clarify pathogenesis, improve diagnosis, and inform therapy. Here, we show that E-cadherin (Ecad), which mediates the adhesion between melanocytes and keratinocytes in the epidermis, is absent from or discontinuously distributed across melanocyte membranes of vitiligo patients long before clinical lesions appear. This abnormality is associated with the detachment of the melanocytes from the basal to the suprabasal layers in the epidermis. Using human epidermal reconstructed skin and mouse models with normal or defective Ecad expression in melanocytes, we demonstrated that Ecad is required for melanocyte adhesiveness to the basal layer under oxidative and mechanical stress, establishing a link between silent/preclinical, cell-autonomous defects in vitiligo melanocytes and known environmental stressors accelerating disease expression. Our results implicate a primary predisposing skin defect affecting melanocyte adhesiveness that, under stress conditions, leads to disappearance of melanocytes and clinical vitiligo. Melanocyte adhesiveness is thus a potential target for therapy aiming at disease stabilization. © 2015 The Society for Investigative Dermatology. Source


Rezvani H.R.,Columbia University | Rezvani H.R.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Rezvani H.R.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Rossignol R.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 16 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics | Year: 2011

Cancer cells utilize complex mechanisms to remodel their bioenergetic properties. We exploited the intrinsic genomic stability of xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC) to understand the inter-relationships between genomic instability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and metabolic alterations during neoplastic transformation. We showed that knockdown of XPC (XPC KD) in normal human keratinocytes results in metabolism remodeling through NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX-1) activation, which in turn leads to increased ROS levels. While enforcing antioxidant defenses by overexpressing catalase, CuZnSOD, or MnSOD could not block the metabolism remodeling, impaired NOX-1 activation abrogates both alteration in ROS levels and modifications of energy metabolism. As NOX-1 activation is observed in human squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), the blockade of NOX-1 could be a target for the prevention and the treatment of skin cancers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bioenergetics of Cancer. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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