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Capello K.,National Reference Center for Rabies
Euro surveillance : bulletin européen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin | Year: 2010

Fox rabies re-emerged in northeastern Italy in 2008, in an area bordering Slovenia. In 2009, the infection spread westward to Veneto region and in 2010 to the provinces of Trento and Bolzano. Aerial emergency oral fox vaccination was implemented in the winter 2009-10. Since this vaccination was performed at altitudes below the freezing level, a statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate its impact. Of the foxes sampled following the vaccination campaign, 77% showed a rabies antibody titre of >or=0.5 IU/ml.

Fusaro A.,National Reference Center for Rabies | Monne I.,National Reference Center for Rabies | Salomoni A.,National Reference Center for Rabies | Angot A.,National Reference Center for Rabies | And 9 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

Fox rabies re-emerged in north-eastern Italy at the end of 2008 and circulated until early 2011. As with previous rabies epidemics, the Italian cases were linked to the epidemiological situation in adjacent regions. To obtain a comprehensive picture of the dynamics of the recent Italian epidemic, we performed a detailed evolutionary analysis of RABVs circulating in north-eastern Italy. Sequences were obtained for the hyper-variable region of the nucleoprotein gene, the complete glycoprotein gene, and the intergenic region G-L from 113 selected fox rabies cases. We identified two viral genetic groups, here referred to as Italy-1 and Italy-2. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses revealed that both groups had been circulating in the Western Balkans and Slovenia in previous years and were only later introduced into Italy (into the Friuli Venezia Giulia region-FVG), occupying different areas of the Italian territories. Notably, viruses belonging to the Italy-1 group remained confined to the region of introduction and their spread was minimised by the implementation of oral fox vaccination campaigns. In contrast, Italy-2 viruses spread westward over a territory of 100. km from their first identification in FVG, likely crossing the northern territories where surveillance was inadequate. A genetic sub-group (Italy-2A), characterised by a unique amino acid mutation (D106A) in the N gene, was also observed to occupy a distinct geographic cluster. This molecular epidemiological analysis of the 2008-2011 fox rabies epidemic will contribute to future control programmes both at national and regional levels. In particular, our findings highlight the weaknesses of the national surveillance strategy in the period preceding rabies re-emergence, and of control plans implemented immediately after rabies notification, and underline the need of a coordinated approach at the regional level for both the surveillance and control of wildlife rabies. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

De Benedictis P.,National Reference Center for Rabies | Sow A.,Laboratoire National dElevage | Fusaro A.,National Reference Center for Rabies | Veggiato C.,National Reference Center for Rabies | And 5 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2010

Genetic characterization of 32 canine rabies viruses circulating in Burkina Faso in 2007 identified two clades both belonging to the Africa 2 lineage. Sequence homology data suggest that transboundary spread is the most likely means of introduction, highlighting an evolving epidemiological situation. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

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