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Wang S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chang T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Shi L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Food Quality | Year: 2015

Soy okara is a by-product from ground soybeans after removal of its water-extractable fraction for soymilk and tofu production. There is a potential to use okara as an extender in meat products. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of particle sizes of okara on the color, textural, sensory and rheological properties of pork meat gels. Okara of different particle sizes was added into pork meat to prepare gels. Pork meat gels with okara of smaller particle sizes showed higher L* values, but gels with okara of larger particle sizes had higher firmness, cohesiveness, chewiness and resilience. The storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of pork batters also decreased with the reduction of the particle sizes of okara. However, the sensory evaluation showed that pork meatballs with okara of smaller particle sizes were preferred by the panelists. This study demonstrated that soy okara might be added into meat products as a dietary supplement for value-added applications and quality improvements. Practical Applications: The corresponding results of this investigation can be considered of great importance for developing a novel meat product that contains dietary fiber with improved functional properties, lower material cost and more nutritional benefit. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Zhang F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Fang L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Shi L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2013

In order to evaluate effects of starches (corn starch, potato starch, and tapioca starch) on the characteristics of surimi-beef gels with microbial transglutaminase, the cooking loss, gel strength, color and rheological properties of samples were investigated. Results demonstrated that starches gave negative effects on the cooking loss of surimi-beef gels. The gel with corn starch had the highest cooking loss while that with tapioca starch showed the lowest value. The gel with potato starch obtained the highest gel strength. During the sol-gel transitions, surimi-beef complexes with 3% corn starch exhibited the highest storage modulus value, while that with 3% tapioca starch had the lowest one. The addition of starch caused the increase of L* values of surimi-beef gels. Results showed that the excessive amount of starch resulted in the decrease in gel strength of surimi-beef gels. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Chang T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Shi L.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Quality | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of soybean oil, moisture and setting on the texture and color of surimi gels. Increasing the moisture and soybean oil contents resulted in increased whiteness values in the gels, but reduced the breaking forces, hardness and chewiness. The highest deformation, cohesiveness and resilience values were observed in gels with 78% moisture, while the lowest in gels with 80% moisture. At soybean oil content >3%, gels with 80% moisture had a lower springiness than those with 76% and 78% moisture. Setting significantly increased the breaking force, deformation, hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, resilience and whiteness of surimi gels with soybean oil. Results indicated that soybean oil and setting procedure could be used to modify the texture and color of surimi-based products. Practical Applications: In China, animal fats are often added into surimi-based products to improve their flavor, taste and color. In the present study, soybean oil was added into the surimi, while the effects of soybean oil associated with the surimi moisture and setting on the textural and color properties of surimi gel were investigated. The study was aimed to provide experimental evidence for application of vegetable oils in the production of surimi-based products. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Wang C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chang T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yang H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yang H.,National R and anch Center for Conventional Freshwater Fish Processing Wuhan | Cui M.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Food Control | Year: 2014

Antimicrobials affected the surface characteristics and membrane integrity of bacterial cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological changes on the surface of Salmonella Enteritidis (ATCC 14028), Escherichia coli (CGMCC 1.2385), and Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19115) induced by lactic acid. Lactic acid was more effective than hydrochloric acid (HCl) at the same pH in inhibiting the growth of these pathogens. The results of zeta potential indicated that surface charges of three pathogens were significantly disturbed by lactic acid treatment. After exposure to 0.5% lactic acid, a rough cell surface with discrete ridges and concave collapses were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Meanwhile, the release of intracellular potassium (K+) also suggested the damage of cytoplasmic membrane. As an effective antimicrobial, lactic acid led to leakage of intracellular K+, damage of membrane permeability and integrity, and changes of surface charge in the pathogens. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Wang C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chang T.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yang H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Yang H.,National R and anch Center for Conventional Freshwater Fish Processing Wuhan | Cui M.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Food Control | Year: 2015

Lactic acid is widely used to inhibit the growth of important microbial pathogens, but its antibacterial mechanism is not yet fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial mechanism of lactic acid on Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes by size measurement, TEM, and SDS-PAGE analysis. The results indicated that 0.5% lactic acid could completely inhibit the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis, E. coli and L. monocytogenes cells. Meanwhile, lactic acid resulted in leakage of proteins of Salmonella, E.coli and Listeria cells, and the amount of leakage after 6h exposure were up to 11.36, 11.76 and 16.29μg/mL, respectively. Measurements of the release of proteins and SDS-PAGE confirmed the disruptive action of lactic acid on cytoplasmic membrane, as well as the content and activity of bacterial proteins. The Z-Average sizes of three pathogens were changed to smaller after lactic acid treatment. The damaged membrane structure and intracellular structure induced by lactic acid could be observed from TEM images. The results suggested that the antimicrobial effect was probably caused by physiological and morphological changes in bacterial cells. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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