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Casciati A.,ENEA | Dobos K.,National Public Health Center National Research Directorate for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene | Antonelli F.,ENEA | Benedek A.,National Public Health Center National Research Directorate for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene | And 17 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2016

Therapeutic irradiation of pediatric and adult patients can profoundly affect adult neurogenesis, and cognitive impairment manifests as a deficit in hippocampal-dependent functions. Age plays a major role in susceptibility to radiation, and younger children are at higher risk of cognitive decay when compared to adults. Cranial irradiation affects hippocampal neurogenesis by induction of DNA damage in neural progenitors, through the disruption of the neurogenic microenvironment, and defective integration of newborn neurons into the neuronal network. Our goal here was to assess cellular and molecular alterations induced by cranial X-ray exposure to low/moderate doses (0.1 and 2 Gy) in the hippocampus of mice irradiated at the postnatal ages of day 10 or week 10, as well as the dependency of these phenomena on age at irradiation. To this aim, changes in the cellular composition of the dentate gyrus, mitochondrial functionality, proteomic profile in the hippocampus, as well as cognitive performance were evaluated by a multidisciplinary approach. Our results suggest the induction of specific alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis, microvascular density and mitochondrial functions, depending on age at irradiation. A better understanding of how irradiation impairs hippocampal neurogenesis at low and moderate doses is crucial to minimize adverse effects of therapeutic irradiation, contributing also to radiation safety regulations. Source


Sandor N.,National Public Health Center National Research Directorate for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene | Sandor N.,Semmelweis University | Schilling-Toth B.,National Public Health Center National Research Directorate for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene | Kis E.,National Public Health Center National Research Directorate for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2015

Tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein-1 (TP53inp1) is expressed by activation via p53 and p73. The purpose of our study was to investigate the role of TP53inp1 in response of fibroblasts to ionizing radiation. γ-Ray radiation dose-dependently induces the expression of TP53inp1 in human immortalized fibroblast (F11hT) cells. Stable silencing of TP53inp1 was done via lentiviral transfection of shRNA in F11hT cells. After irradiation the clonogenic survival of TP53inp1 knockdown (F11hT-shTP) cells was compared to cells transfected with non-targeting (NT) shRNA. Radiation-induced senescence was measured by SA-β-Gal staining and autophagy was detected by Acridine Orange dye and microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3 (LC3B) immunostaining. The expression of TP53inp1, GDF-15, and CDKN1A and alterations in radiation induced mitochondrial DNA deletions were evaluated by qPCR. TP53inp1 was required for radiation (IR) induced maximal elevation of CDKN1A and GDF-15 expressions. Mitochondrial DNA deletionswere increased and autophagy was deregulated following irradiation in the absence of TP53inp1. Finally, we showed that silencing of TP53inp1 enhances the radiation sensitivity of fibroblast cells. These data suggest functional roles for TP53inp1 in radiation-induced autophagy and survival. Taken together, we suppose that silencing of TP53inp1 leads radiation induced autophagy impairment and induces accumulation of damaged mitochondria in primary human fibroblasts. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

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